Indonesian Propolis Inhibit Proinflammatory Cytokines, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Anthrax Animal Model

Ratih Tri Kusuma Dewi, Dhani Redhono, Agung Susanto, Diding Heri Prasetyo, Evi Nurhayatun, Ida Nurwati, Bambang Purwanto


BACKGROUND: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, whose endospores stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote oxidative stress. Propolis, a natural resource that can be found in Indonesia, has been proven to have anti-apoptotic and antioxidant role which might be a potential adjuvant therapy for anthrax treatment. Hence in this study we aimed to investigate effect of propolis as an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant in anthrax rats model by examining the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively.

METHODS: This was an experimental post-test only study with 40 male rats weighed 180-200 g that were induced by anthrax spores injected subcutaneously. The rats were divided into one control positive group and four intervention groups that were administered with 200 mg/kgBW propolis extract for 7 to 14 days. The levels of serum TNF-α, caspase-3, and MDA were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analyzed with bivariate analysis.

RESULTS: TNF-α, caspase-3, and MDA level were found lower in anthrax rats model given ethanol extract of propolis than the control group. The lowest concentration of TNF-α value was found in group administered with propolis extract 200 mg/kgBW for 7 days before the anthrax induction (6.136±0.205 pg/mL). The results were similar to the MDA serum and caspase-3 which were the lowest when the propolis was administered 7 days earlier (1.893±0.188 nmol/mL and 2.040±0.067 ng/mL). There was significant difference in the TNF-α, caspase-3, and MDA serum levels (p≤0.001) compared to control group.

CONCLUSION: Propolis has anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects which can be used as complementary therapy in anthrax infection.

KEYWORDS: propolis, anthrax, anti-apoptotic, antioxidants

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