Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase Activity by Ethanolic Extract of Piperomia pellucida L., Acacypha indica L. and Momordica charantia L.

Parawansah Parawansah, Nuralifah Nuralifah, Gemini Alam, Rosdiana Natzir

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Uric acid is a final result of purine catabolism, the enzymatic reactions in the body cells from amino acids or ribonucleotide dinucleotide. Peperomia pellucida L. (P. pellucida), Acalypha indica L. (A. indica) and Momordica charantia L. (M. charantia) are plants which have efficacy to reduce levels of uric acid excess. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of ethanol extract of P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia in preventing the formation of uric acid excess by inhibiting the action of the enzyme xanthine oxidase and comparing the inhibition activity of xanthine oxidase on treatments.

METHODS: The study design is experimental and conducted using the enzyme xanthine oxidase, xanthine (substrate), pH 7.5 phosphate buffer, samples (P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia ethanol extracts) and HCL as reaction breaker. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase was determined enzymatically and unreacted xanthine was measured by UV spectrophotometer at 290 nm. The data were expressed as percent inhibition and the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 were determined using linear regresion of inhibition activity vs. concentration.

RESULTS: The IC50 of P. pellucida, A. indica and M. charantia ethanol extracts in inhibiting xanthine oxidase were 19.5 ppm, 77.6 ppm and 17.8 ppm, respectively. IC50 of allopurinol was 1.99 μg/ml, and negative control (combination of enzyme and substrate) has absorbance value of 0.75026.

CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of M. charantia showed the most potent inhibition toward xanthine oxidase compared to the other two extracts.

KEYWORDS: xanthine oxidase, Peperomia pellucida L., Acalypha indica L., Momordica charantia L.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Tjay TH, Rahardja K. Obat-Obat Penting: Khasiat, Penggunaan dan Efek-Efek Sampingnya. 5th Ed. Jakarta: PT. Elex Media Komputindo Kelompok Gramedia; 2002.

Schunack W, Mayer K, Haake M. Senyawa Obat [translation by Wattimena JR, Soebita S]. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press; 1993.

Mutschler E. Dinamika Obat: Buku Ajar Farmakologi dan Toksikologi [translation by Widiyanto MB, Ranti AS]. 5th Ed. Bandung: ITB Press; 1991.

Sacher RA, McPherson RA, Campos JM, Widmann FK. Widmann's Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests. Philadelphia: Davis; 2000, NLMID.

Tamta H, Kalra S, Mukhopadhyay AK. Biochemical characterization of some pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Biochemistry. 2006; 71: 49-54, CrossRef.

Wortmann RL. Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008. p.2444, NLMID.

Murray R, Rodwell V, Bender D, Botham KM, Weil PA, Kennelly PJ. Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. In: Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 26th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2003. p.292-301, NLMID.

Luk AJ, Simkin PA. Epidemiology of hyperuricemia and gout. Am J Manag Care. 2005; 11 (Suppl 15): S435-42, PMID.

World Health Organization. General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Taditional Medicine. Geneva: WHO; 2000, article.

Dalimartha S. Atlas Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia Vol. 4. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya. 2004.

Wijayakusuma H. Atasi Asam Urat dan Rematik ala Hembing. Jakarta: Puspa Swara; 2007.

Sio SO, Maramba NPC, Sia IC. Acute oral toxicity of the freeze dried aqueous extract of peperomia pellucida (L) H.B.K. (ulasimang bato) in mice. Acta Medica Philippina. 2001; 37: 1-11, article.

Jamilah, M. Penentuan Nilai LD50 Ekstrak Air Herba Akar Kucing (Acalypha indica Linn.) dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Kadar Asam Urat Dalam Darah Tikus Putih Jantan Yang Diinduksi Kalium Oksonat [Essay]. Depok: Universitas Indonesia; 2008, article.

Wu SJ, Ng LT. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT. 2008; 41: 323-30, CrossRef.

Nirosa MC. Isolation of chemical compounds from methanol extract of Peperomia pellucid [Thesis]. Terengganu: University of Malaysia Terengganu; 2012, article.

Xu S, Li N, Ning MM, Zhou CH, Yang QR, Wang MW. Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida. J Nat Prod. 2006; 69: 247-50, CrossRef.

Hameed SS, Nagendran S, Muthukumar T, Ramalingam S, Palanisamy S. Influence of Acalypha indica in cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and anticancer activity in HT-29 colon cell lines. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2015; 7: 40-52, article.

Jayaprakasam R, Ravi TK. Evaluation of anti arthritic activity of the root extract of Acalypha indica Linn. using in vitro techniques. Int J Phyto Pharm. 2012; 2: 169-73, CrossRef.

Uebanso T, Aria H, Taketani Y, Fukaya M, Yamamoto H, Mizuno A, et al. Extracts of Momordica charantia suppress postprandial hyperglycemia in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2007; 53: 482-8, CrossRef.

Oishi Y, Sakamoto T, Udagawa H, Taniguchi H, Kobayashi-Hattori K, Ozawa Y, et al. Inhibition of increases in blood glucose and serum neutral fat by Momordica charantia saponin fraction. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007; 71: 735-40, CrossRef.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18585/inabj.v8i3.194

Indexed by:

                 

                  

               

     

 

The Prodia Education and Research Institute