Cytotoxicity of Alpinia galanga Rhizome Crude Extract on NIH-3T3 Cells

Ferry Sandra, Janti Sudiono, Pretty Trisfilha, Deviyanti Pratiwi


BACKGROUND: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) was reported as a potential medicinal source due to its wide effect. A. galanga rhizome crude extract (ARCE) was reported to have high cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but low in normal cells. However half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ARCE is not clearly known yet. Hence, current study was conducted to investigate the IC50 of ARCE in normal standard fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3 cells.

METHODS: Rhizomes of A. galanga were collected, peeled, dried, milled and weighed. Extraction was performed using maceration method, then filtered and evaporated. ARCE with various concentrations were applied in NIH-3T3 cells for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were documented and counted with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

RESULTS: Five hundreds grams of simplicia were macerated with ethanol and evaporated, 1 mg/mL crude extract with total volume of 114 mL was obtained. By addition of ARCE in NIH-3T3 cell culture, number of NIH-3T3 cells were shown less when treated with higher concentration of ARCE. Cell numbers of 0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50% ARCE treatment for 24 hours are 11,531, 11,352, 10,920, 10,365, 9,471, 8,360, respectively, meanwhile for 48 hours are 13,219, 12,686, 12,278, 11,390, 10,279, 8,390, respectively.

CONCLUSION: IC50 of ARCE in 24 hours treatment was 620.5 mg/mL, while in 48 hours treatment was 666.6 mg/mL. Hence, ARCE is suggested to have low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 cells.

KEYWORDS: Alpinia galanga, ginger, extract, cytotoxic, MTT, NIH-3T3


Full Text:



Tang QY, Kukita T, Ushijima Y, Kukita A, Nagata K, Sandra F, et al. Regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Simon extracts composed of caffeic acid and related compounds: successful suppression of bone destruction accompanied with adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006; 125: 215-25, CrossRef.

Sandra F, Kukita T, Tang QY, Iijima T. Caffeic acid inhibited NFκB activation of osteoclastogenesis signaling pathway. Indones Biomed J. 2011; 3: 216-22, CrossRef.

Sandra F, Kukita T, Muta T, Iijima T. Caffeic acid inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) 6 induced osteoclastogenesis pathway. Indones Biomed J. 2013; 3: 173-8, CrossRef.

Arung ET, Wicaksono BD, Handoko A, Kusuma IW, Yulia D, Sandra F. Anti-cancer properties of diethylether extract of wood from sukun (Artocarpus altilis) in human breast cancer (T47D) cells. Trop J Pharm Res. 2009; 8: 317-24, article.

Wicaksono BD, Handoko A, Arung ET, Kusuma IW, Yulia D, Pancaputra AN, et al. Antiproliferative effect of methanol extract of Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav leaves on human breast (T47D) cells in-vitro. Trop J Pharm Res. 2009; 8: 345-52, article.

Arung ET, Kusuma IW, Purwatiningsih S, Roh SS, Yang CH, Jeon S, et al. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the traditional Indonesian medicine Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita L.) extract. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009; 2: 306-8, CrossRef.

Arung ET, Wicaksono BD, Handoko YA, Kusuma IW, Shimizu K, Yulia D, et al. Cytotoxic effect of artocarpin on T47D cells. J Nat Med. 2010; 64: 423-9, CrossRef.

Widowati W, Mozef T, Risdian C, Ratnawati H, Tjahyani S, Sandra F. Apoptosis and antioxidant activities of Catharanthus roseus [L] G.Don extract on breast cancer cell line. Indones J Cancer Chemoprevent. 2010; 1: 99-107, article.

Widowati W, Mozef T, Risdian C, Ratnawati H, Tjahjani S, Sandra F. The comparison of antioxidative and proliferation inhibitor properties of Piper betle L., Catharanthus roseus [L] G.Don, Dendrophtoe petandra L., Curcuma mangga Val. Extracts on T47D cancer cell line. Int Res J Biochem Bioinform. 2011; 1: 22-8, article.

Widowati W, Sardjono CT, Wijaya L, Laksmitawati DR, Sandra F. Extract of Curcuma longa L. and (-)-Epigallo Catechin-3-Gallate enhanced proliferation of adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and differentiation of AD-MSCs into endothelial progenitor cells. J USA-China Med Sci. 2012; 9: 22-9, article.

Margaretta DM, Chow A, Dirgantara Y, Djamil MS, Sandra F. Macerated-pineapple core crude extract-derived bromelain has low cytotoxic effect in NIH-3T3 fibroblast. Indones Biomed J. 2015; 7: 101-6, CrossRef.

Wicaksono BD, Tangkearung E, Sandra F. Brucea javanica leaf extract induced apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC2) cells by attenuation of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Indones Biomed J. 2015; 7: 107-10, CrossRef.

Rizal MI, Sandra F. Brucea javanica leaf extract activates caspase-9 and caspase-3 of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Indones Biomed J. 2016; 8: 43-8, CrossRef.

Widowati W, Maesaroh, Fauziah N, Erawijantari PP, Sandra F. Free radical scavenging and α-/β-glucosidase inhibitory activities of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract. Indones Biomed J. 2015; 7: 157-62, CrossRef.

Lizandi AO, Sardjono CT, Frisca, Widowati W, Gunanegara RF, Sandra F. GliSODin meningkatkan potensi sel punca. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2010 37(175): 107-10, article.

Widowati W, Widyanto RM, Laksmitawati DR, Erawijantari PP, Wijaya L, Sandra F. Phytochemical, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic assay of Cucumis Melo L. extract and B-carotene. JOAAT. 2015; 2: 114-9, article.

Wicaksono BD, Arung ET, Sandra F. Aktivitas antikanker dari kayu secang. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2008; 35: 133-7, article.

Arung ET, Wicaksono DB, Sandra F. Prenylated Flavonoid sebagai Senyawa Anti Kanker yang Berpotensi. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2009; 36: 20-2, article.

Kaushik D, Yadav J, Kaushik P, Sacher D, Rani R. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011; 9: 1061-5, CrossRef.

Zhang LN, Sun YJ, Pan S, Li JX, Qu YE, Li Y, et al. Na+-K+-ATPase, a potent neuroprotective modulator against Alzheimer disease. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 27: 96-103, CrossRef.

Kumar MA, Nair M, Hema PS, Mohan J, Santhoshkumar TR. Pinocembrin triggers Bax-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2007; 46: 231-41, PMID.

Banjerdpongchai R, Punyati P, Nakrob A, Pompimon W, Kongtawelert P. 4’-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde from Alpinia galanga (Linn.) induces human leukemic cell apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12: 593-8, PMID.

Ohnishi R, Matsui-Yuasa I, Deguchi Y, Yaku K, Tabuchi M, Munakata H, et al. 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat-fed rats. Am J Chin Med. 2012; 40: 1189-204, CrossRef.

Muangnoi P, Lu M, Lee J, Thepouyporn A, Mirzayans R, Le XC, et al. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and DNA damage induced by Alpinia galanga rhizome extract. Planta Med. 2007; 73: 748-54, CrossRef.

NIH 3T3 Cell Line - mouse embryonic fibroblasts - General Information [Internet]. San Fransisco: NIH 3T3 Cell Line. [cited 2016 May 22]. Available from:

Samarghandian S, Hadjzadeh MA, Afshari JT, Hosseini M. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic by ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga rhizhome in human breast carcinoma cell line. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14: 192, CrossRef.

Lee CC, Houghton P. Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treat cancer. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 100: 237-43, CrossRef.

Suja S, Chinnaswamy P. Inhibition of in vitro cytotoxic effect evoked by Alpinia galanga and Alpinia officinarum on PC-3 cell line. Anc Sci Life. 2008; 27: 33-40, PMID.

Jaiswal JV, Wadegaonkar PA, Hajare SW. The bioflavonoid galangin suppresses the growth of ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss Albino mice: a molecular insight. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012; 167: 1325-39, CrossRef.


Copyright (c) 2017 The Prodia Education and Research Institute

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Indexed by:






The Prodia Education and Research Institute