Polyscias scutellaria Aqueous Leaves Extract Increases Insulin Levels and Improves Mammary Gland Histology in Lactating Rats

Budiono Budiono, Sumirah Budi Pertami, Kasiati Kasiati, Tutik Herawati, Nurul Pujiastuti, Siti Nur Arifah, Mochammad Fitri Atho'illah


BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding could be a protective step to avoid infant stunting. During lactation, several hormones are involved in milk secretion, including insulin. Polyscias scutellaria is a perennial plant which has traditionally been used to increase breast milk production. This study was conducted to examine the impact of P. scutellaria leaf extract on the mammary gland histology, expression of insulin in the mammary gland, as well as plasma insulin and the insulin receptor levels.

METHODS: Five female unmated rats (UR) and twenty female lactating rats were divided into five groups, namely UR, lactating rats only (LRO), lactating rats treated with Asifit (LRA), lactating rats treated with PSAE at a dosage of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (LRPSAE 250 and 500). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. The dams were sacrificed after the weaning stage (third week after parturition), and the serum, mammary gland, liver, and muscle were collected for further analysis.

RESULTS: The histoarchitecture of mammary gland between the LRA and LRPSAE groups were similar. The LRPSAE 250 group had higher plasma level and immunofluorescent expression of insulin than the LRA group. PSAE did not affect insulin receptor beta subunit (INSR-β) levels in both liver and muscle of lactating rats.

CONCLUSION: PSAE could be used as an herbal treatment to increase breast milk production by improving mammary gland histology and maintaining the mother's insulin levels.

KEYWORDS: Polyscias scutellaria, lactating rats, insulin, INSR-β

Full Text:



World Health Organization (WHO) [Internet]. Childhood Stunting: Context, Causes and Consequences - Conceptual Framework [update 2016 Apr 7; cited 2023 May 21]. Available from: https://www.who.int/.

Stuebe AM, Grewen K, Meltzer-Brody S. Association between maternal mood and oxytocin response to breastfeeding. J Womens Health. 2013; 22(4): 352-61, CrossRef.

Hamuaty RB, Sukmawati IR, Sandra F. Relationship between sRAGE and hsCRP as markers of cardiovascular disease risk factors in diabetic and non-diabetic men with central obesity. Mol Cell Biomed Sci. 2017; 1(2): 70-4, CrossRef.

Ahmad MF, Haidar MA, Naseem N, Ahsan H, Siddiqui WA. Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biomed Sci. 2023; 7(1): 10-7, CrossRef.

Cunha ACDSR, Pereira RO, Dos Santos Pereira MJ, De Melo Soares V, Martins MR, Teixeira Teixeira M, et al. Long-term effects of overfeeding during lactation on insulin secretion — the role of GLUT-2. J Nutr Biochem. 2009; 20(6): 435-42, CrossRef.

Neville MC, Webb P, Ramanathan P, Mannino MP, Pecorini C, Monks J, et al. The insulin receptor plays an important role in secretory differentiation in the mammary gland. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 305(9): E1103-14, CrossRef.

Sevrin T, Boquien CY, Gandon A, Grit I, de Coppet P, Darmaun D, et al. Fenugreek stimulates the expression of genes involved in milk synthesis and milk flow through modulation of insulin/GH/IGF-1 axis and oxytocin secretion. Genes. 2020; 11(10): 1208, CrossRef.

Nommsen-Rivers LA. Does insulin explain the relation between maternal obesity and poor lactation outcomes? An overview of the literature. Adv Nutr. 2016; 7(2): 407-14, CrossRef.

Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature. 2001; 414(6865): 799-806, CrossRef.

Mortel M, Mehta SD. Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues: J Hum Lact. 2013; 29(2): 154-62, CrossRef.

Bazzano AN, Hofer R, Thibeau S, Gillispie V, Jacobs M, Theall KP. A review of herbal and pharmaceutical galactagogues for breast-feeding. Ochsner J. 2016; 16(4): 511-24, PMID.

Budiono B, Pertami SB, Kasiati, Arifah SN, Atho’illah MF. Lactogenic effect of Polyscias scutellaria extract to maintain postpartum prolactin and oxytocin in lactating rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2023; 14(2): 100580, CrossRef.

Baier B, Viertel B. Data on development of the Wistar rat skeleton at the end of gestation. Data Brief. 2019; 25: 104225, CrossRef.

Liem S, Rostinawati T, Lesmana R, Sumiwi SA, Milanda T, Mutakin M, et al. Modulation of caspase-3 expression by Arcangelisia flava post acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rat’s liver. Indones Biomed J. 2018; 10(2): 148-55, CrossRef.

Arifah SN, Atho’illah MF, Lukiati B, Lestari SR. Herbal medicine from single clove garlic oil extract ameliorates hepatic steatosis and oxidative status in high fat diet mice. Malays J Med Sci. 2020; 27(1): 46-56, CrossRef.

Macias H, Hinck L. Mammary gland development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2012; 1(4): 533-57, CrossRef.

Srivastava S, Dhagga N. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology and apoptosis in the mammary gland of adult Wistar rats. J Basic Appl Zool. 2019; 80(1): 20, CrossRef.

Biswas SK, Banerjee S, Baker GW, Kuo CY, Chowdhury I. The mammary gland: Basic structure and molecular signaling during development. Int J Mol Sci. 2022; 23(7): 3883, CrossRef.

Gopalakrishnan K, Teitelbaum SL, Wetmur J, Manservisi F, Falcioni L, Panzacchi S, et al. Histology and transcriptome profiles of the mammary gland across critical windows of development in Sprague Dawley rats. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2018; 23(3): 149-63, CrossRef.

Zhu H, Jia X, Ren M, Yang L, Chen J, Han L, et al. Mifepristone treatment in pregnant murine model induced mammary gland dysplasia and postpartum hypogalactia. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020; 8: 102, CrossRef.

Rahman MS, Hossain KS, Das S, Kundu S, Adegoke EO, Rahman MA, et al. Role of insulin in health and disease: An update. Int J Mol Sci. 2021; 22(12): 6403, CrossRef.

Whitmore TJ, Trengove NJ, Graham DF, Hartmann PE. Analysis of insulin in human breast milk in mothers with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Endocrinol. 2012; 2012: e296368, CrossRef.

Menzies KK, Lee HJ, Lefèvre C, Ormandy CJ, Macmillan KL, Nicholas KR. Insulin, a key regulator of hormone responsive milk protein synthesis during lactogenesis in murine mammary explants. Funct Integr Genomics. 2010; 10(1): 87-95, CrossRef.

Magistrelli D, Dimel P, Rosi F. Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning. Ital J Anim Sci. 2007; 6(Suppl 1): 625-7, CrossRef.

Magistrelli D, Pinotti L, Rapetti L, Rosi F. Ghrelin, insulin and pancreatic activity in the peri-weaning period of goat kids. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2011; 95(1): 40-6, CrossRef.

Berlato C, Doppler W. Selective response to insulin versus insulin-like growth factor-I and -II and up-regulation of insulin receptor splice variant B in the differentiated mouse mammary epithelium. Endocrinology. 2009; 150(6): 2924-33, CrossRef.

Pertami SB, Arifah SN, Atho’illah MF, Budiono B. Active Compounds from Polyscias scutellaria stimulate breast milk production: in silico study on serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors and prolactin receptors. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(7): 1223-9, CrossRef.

Budiono B, Pertami SB, Arifah SN, Lestari SR. Molecular docking analysis of Polyscias scutellaria active compounds as inhibitor of dopamine D2 receptors to increase prolactin secretion. AIP Conf Proc. 2021; 2353(1): 030034, CrossRef.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18585/inabj.v15i4.2425

Copyright (c) 2023 The Prodia Education and Research Institute

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Indexed by:






The Prodia Education and Research Institute