In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-obesity Activities of Freeze-dried Canarium sp., Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Malus domestica

Sri Utami, Susi Endrini, Said Nafik, Intan Meila Tria Lestari, Dea Anindya, Engkay Abu Bakar, Fahrul Rozy, Fathonah Fatimatuzahra Said, Ervi Afifah, Seila Arumwardana, Hayatun Nufus, Dwi Davidson Rihibiha, Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma, Satrio Haryo Benowo Wibowo, Wahyu Widowati


BACKGROUND: The number of obesity cases is still increasing worldwide and has reached an epidemic scale. Plants are known to have a protection role in the development of obesity, however their antioxidant and anti-obesity activities have not widely known. This study was conducted to assess the in vitro antioxidant and anti-obesity activities of different types of freeze-dried fruits cultivated in Indonesia, especially Canarium sp., Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Malus domestica.

METHODS: Total phenolic content of freeze-dried fruits was identified by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the total flavonoid content was measured by aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. To assessed the antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) reducing activity assay were performed. The α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity assay were performed to assess the anti-obesity activity. For comparison, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) compound was also assessed with DPPH, ABTS, α-amylase and lipase assays.

RESULTS: A. bilimbi had the highest total phenol content (6.35 µg GAE/mg), meanwhile M. domestica had the highest total flavonoid content (2.06 µg QE/mg). A. bilimbi also showed the highest antioxidant activity both in DPPH and ABTS assay, with inhibitory concentration (IC50)=279.99 µg/mL and 631.78 µg/mL, respectively. The freeze-dried M. domestica had the highest anti-α-amylase activity (IC50=258.85 µg/mL), while Canarium sp. had the highest anti-lipase activity (IC50=118.66 µg/mL).

CONCLUSION: Freeze-dried fruits demonstrate in vitro benefits toward obesity. A. bilimbi has potent antioxidant activity and is beneficial against obesity-related adverse health effect by relieving oxidative stress. M. domestica and Canarium sp. hamper the fat accumulation by reducing the carbohydrate absorption and dietary lipid.

KEYWORDS: antioxidant, anti-obesity, Canarium sp., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Malus domestica, hydroxycitric acid

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