Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

Anna Meiliana, Andi Wijaya

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.

CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders.

SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever. 

KEYWORDS: Obesity, Adipocyte, Adipose, Tissue, Adipogenesis, Angiogenesis, Lipid Droplet, Lipolysis, Plasticity, Dysfunction

 

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2006; 444: 875-80, CrossRef.

Kahn SE, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2006;4 44: 840-6, CrossRef.

Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, Layden J, Carnes BA, Brody J, et al. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352: 1138-45, CrossRef.

Björntorp P. Effects of age, sex, and clinical conditions on adipose tissue cellularity in man. Metabolism. 1974; 23: 1091-102, CrossRef.

Hirsch J, Batchelor B. Adipose tissue cellularity in human obesity. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976; 5: 299-311, CrossRef.

Trayhurn P. Adipocyte biology. Obes Rev. 2007; 8 (Suppl 1): 41-4, CrossRef.

Spalding KL, Arner E, Westermark PO, Bernard S, Buchholz BA, Bergmann O, et al. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature. 2008; 453: 783-7, CrossRef.

Prins JB, O’rahilly S. Regulation of adipose cell number in man. Clin Sci. 1997; 92: 3-11, CrossRef.

Rodriguez A-M, Elabd C, Amri E-Z, Ailhaud G, Dani C. The human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Biochimie. 2005; 87: 125-8, CrossRef.

Petruschke T, Hauner H Tumor necrosis factor-alpha prevents the differentiation of human adipocyte precursor cells and causes delipidation of newly developed fat cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993; 76: 742-7, CrossRef.

Prins JB, Walker NI, Winterford CM, Cameron DP. Apoptosis of human adipocytes in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994; 201: 500-7, CrossRef.

Cinti S. Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res. 2005; 46: 2347-55, CrossRef.

Frayn K. Adipose tissue as a buffer for daily lipid flux. Diabetologia. 2002; 45: 1201-10, CrossRef.

Frayn KN, Karpe F, Fielding BA, Macdonald IA, Coppack SW. Integrative physiology of human adipose tissue. Int J Obes. 2003; 27: 875-88, CrossRef.

Okuno A, Tamemoto H, Tobe K, Ueki K, Mori Y, Iwamoto K, et al. Troglitazone increases the number of small adipocytes without the change of white adipose tissue mass in obese Zucker rats. J Clin Invest. 1998; 101: 1354-61, CrossRef.

Hallakou S, Doare L, Foufelle F, Kergoat M, Guerre-Millo M, Berthault MF, et al. Pioglitazone induces in vivo adipocyte differentiation in the obese Zucker fa/fa rat. Diabetes. 1997; 46: 1393-9, CrossRef.

Danforth E Jr. Failure of adipocyte differentiation causes type II diabetes mellitus? Nat Genet. 2000; 26: 13, CrossRef.

Avram MM, Avram AS, James WD. Subcutaneous fat in normal and diseased states. J Am Acad Dermatology. 2007; 56: 472-92, CrossRef.

Bray MS, Young ME. Circadian rhythms in the development of obesity: potential role for the circadian clock within the adipocyte. Obes Rev. 2007; 8: 169-81, CrossRef.

Edery I. Circadian rhythms in a nutshell. Physiol Genomics. 2000; 3: 59-74, PMID.

Engfeldt P, Arner P. Lipolysis in human adipocytes, effects of cell size, age and of regional differences. Horm Metab Res Suppl. 1988; 19: 26-9, PMID.

Despres JP, Fong BS, Julien P, Jimenez J, Angel A. Regional variation in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size. Am J Physiol. 1987; 252: E654-9, PMID.

Weyer C, Foley JE, Bogardus C, Tataranni PA, Pratley RE. Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size, but not obesity itself, predicts Type II diabetes independent of insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2000; 43: 1498-506, CrossRef.

Trayhurn P, Wood IS. Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. Br J Nutr. 2004; 92: 347, CrossRef.

Hauner H. Secretory factors from human adipose tissue and their functional role. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005; 64: 163-9, CrossRef.

Hosogai N, Fukuhara A, Oshima K, Miyata Y, Tanaka S, Segawa K, et al. Adipose tissue hypoxia in obesity and its impact on adipocytokine dysregulation. Diabetes. 2007; 56: 901-11, CrossRef.

Arner P. New aspects on adipogenesis in man. Obes Metab. 2009; 5 (Suppl 2): 32-37.

Garaulet M, Hernandez-Morante JJ, Lujan J, Tebar FJ, Zamora S. Relationship between fat cell size and number and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue from different fat depots in overweight/obese humans. Int J Obes. 2006; 30: 899-905, CrossRef.

Faust IM, Johnson PR, Stern JS, Hirsch J. Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new model of obesity. Am J Physiol. 1978; 235: E279-86, PMID.

Johnson PR, Stern JS, Greenwood MRC, Hirsch J. Adipose tissue hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia in zucker obese female rats: A developmental study. Metabolism. 1978; 27: 1941-54, CrossRef.

Hausman DB, DiGirolamo M, Bartness TJ, Hausman GJ, Martin RJ. The biology of white adipocyte proliferation. Obes Rev. 2001; 2: 239-54, CrossRef.

Gregoire FM. Adipocyte differentiation: from fibroblast to endocrine cell. Exp Biol Med. 2001; 226: 997-1002, PMID.

Fajas L. Adipogenesis: a cross-talk between cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Ann Med. 2003; 35: 79-85, CrossRef.

Smas CM, Sul HS. Control of adipocyte differentiation. Biochem J. 1995; 309: 697-710. CrossRef.

Ailhaud G, Grimaldi P, Négrel R.. Cellular and molecular aspects of adipose tissue development. Annu Rev Nutr. 1992; 12: 207-33, CrossRef.

Pittenger MF. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science. 1999; 284: 143-7, CrossRef.

Rosen ED, Spiegelman BM. Molecular regulation of adipogenesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2000; 16: 145-71, CrossRef.

Morrison RF, Farmer SR. Hormonal signaling and transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr. 2000; 130: S3116-21, PMID.

Gregoire FM, Smas CM, Sul HS. Understanding adipocyte differentiation. Physiol Rev. 1998; 78: 783-809, PMID.

Sul H, Smas C, Moustaid N. Positive and negative regulators of adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr Biochem. 1993; 4: 554-62, CrossRef.

Gaskins HR, Kim JW, Wright JT, Rund LA, Hausman GJ. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I ribonucleic acid expression, polypeptide secretion, and binding protein activity by growth hormone in porcine preadipocyte cultures. Endocrinology. 1990; 126: 622-30, CrossRef.

Marques BG, Hausman DB, Latimer AM, Kras KM, Grossman BM, Martin RJ. Insulin-like growth factor I mediates high-fat diet-induced adipogenesis in Osborne-Mendel rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000; 278: R654-62, PMID.

Deslex S, Negrel R, Ailhaud G. Development of a chemically defined serum-free medium for differentiation of rat adipose precursor cells. Exp Cell Res. 1987; 168: 15-30, CrossRef.

Ramsay TG, White ME, Wolverton CK. Insulin-like growth factor 1 induction of differentiation of porcine preadipocytes. J Anim Sci. 1989; 67: 2452-9, PMID.

Smith PJ, Wise LS, Berkowitz R, Wan C, Rubin CS. Insulin-like growth factor-I is an essential regulator of the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1988; 263: 9402-8, PMID.

Wright JT, Hausman GJ. Insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced stimulation of porcine preadipocyte replication. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 1995; 31: 404-8, CrossRef.

Rajkumar K, Modric T, Murphy LJ. Impaired adipogenesis in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 transgenic mice. J Endocrinol. 1999; 162: 457-65, CrossRef.

Holzenberger M. Experimental IGF-I receptor deficiency generates a sexually dimorphic pattern of organ-specific growth deficits in mice, affecting fat tissue in particular. Endocrinology. 2001 Oct; 142: 4469-78, CrossRef.

Miki H, Yamauchi T, Suzuki R, Komeda K, Tsuchida A, Kubota N, et al. Essential role of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 in adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2001; 21: 2521-32, CrossRef.

MacDougald OA, Cornelius P, Lin FT, Chen SS, Lane MD. Glucocorticoids reciprocally regulate expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and delta genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and white adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1994; 269: 19041-7, PMID.

Wu Z, Bucher NL, Farmer SR. Induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma during the conversion of 3T3 fibroblasts into adipocytes is mediated by C/EBPbeta, C/EBPdelta, and glucocorticoids. Mol Cell Biol. 1996; 16: 4128-36, CrossRef.

Yeh WC, Cao Z, Classon M, McKnight SL. Cascade regulation of terminal adipocyte differentiation by three members of the C/EBP family of leucine zipper proteins. Genes Dev. 1995; 9: 168-81, CrossRef.

Shin SM, Kim K, Kim JK, Yoon SR, Choi I, Yang Y. Dexamethasone reverses TGF-β-mediated inhibition of primary rat preadipocyte differentiation. FEBS Letters. 2003; 543: 25-30, CrossRef.

Cui Q, Wang GJ, Balian G. Steroid-induced adipogenesis in a pluripotential cell line from bone marrow. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997; 79: 1054-63, PMID.

Shi XM, Blair HC, Yang X, McDonald JM, Cao X. Tandem repeat of C/EBP binding sites mediates PPARgamma2 gene transcription in glucocorticoid-induced adipocyte differentiation. J Cell Biochem. 2000; 76: 518-27, CrossRef.

Prins JB, Niesler CU, Winterford CM, Bright NA, Siddle K, O’Rahilly S, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces apoptosis of human adipose cells. Diabetes. 1997; 46: 1939-44, CrossRef.

Ribot J, Oliver P, Serra F, Palou A. Retinoic acid modulates the retinoblastoma protein during adipocyte terminal differentiation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005; 1740: 249-57, CrossRef.

Villarroya F, Giralt M, Iglesias R. Retinoids and adipose tissues: metabolism, cell differentiation and gene expression. Int J Obes. 1999; 23: 1-6, CrossRef.

Bost F, Aouadi M, Caron L, Binétruy B. The role of MAPKs in adipocyte differentiation and obesity. Biochimie. 2005; 87: 51-6, CrossRef.

Tang Q-Q, Otto TC, Lane MD. Mitotic clonal expansion: A synchronous process required for adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 100: 44-9, CrossRef.

Camp HS. Tafuri SR. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity by mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 10811-6, CrossRef.

Holt EH, Lane MD. Downregulation of repressive CUP/AP-2 isoforms during adipocyte differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001; 288: 752-6, CrossRef.

Tang QQ, Jiang MS, Lane MD. Repressive effect of Sp1 on the C/EBPα gene promoter: Role in adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1999; 19: 4855-65, CrossRef.

Tang QQ, Lane MD. Role of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP-10) in the programmed activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta during adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 12446-50, CrossRef.

Smas CM, Chen L, Zhao L, Latasa M-J, Sul HS. Transcriptional repression of pref-1 by glucocorticoids promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 12632-41, CrossRef.

Weiss MJ, Orkin SH. GATA transcription factors: key regulators of hematopoiesis. Exp Hematol. 1995; 23: 99-107, PMID.

Tong Q, Dalgin G, Xu H, Ting CN, Leiden JM, Hotamisligil GS. Function of GATA transcription factors in preadipocyte-adipocyte transition. Science. 2000; 290: 134-8, CrossRef.

Tong Q, Tsai J, Tan G, Dalgin G, Hotamisligil GS. Interaction between GATA and the C/EBP family of transcription factors is critical in GATA-mediated suppression of adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005; 25: 706-15, CrossRef.

Miller WH Jr, Faust IM, Hirsch J. Demonstration of de novo production of adipocytes in adult rats by biochemical and radioautographic techniques. J Lipid Res. 1984; 25: 336-47, PMID.

Shillabeer G, Lau DC. Regulation of new fat cell formation in rats: the role of dietary fats. J Lipid Res.1994; 35: 592-600, PMID.

Ellis JR, McDonald RB, Stern JS. A diet high in fat stimulates adipocyte proliferation in older (22 month) rats. Exp Gerontol. 1990; 25: 141-8, CrossRef.

Nakatani T. A low fish oil inhibits SREBP-1 proteolytic cascade, while a high-fish-oil feeding decreases SREBP-1 mRNA in mice liver: relationship to anti-obesity. J Lipid Res. 2002; 44: 369-79, CrossRef.

Okuno M, Kajiwara K, Imai S, Kobayashi T, Honma N, Maki T, et al. Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr. 1997; 127: 1752-7, PMID.

Ukropec J, Reseland JE, Gasperikova D, Demcakova E, Madsen L, Berge RK, et al. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of dietary n-3 FA is associated with increased beta-oxidation and reduced leptin expression. Lipids. 2003; 38: 1023-9, CrossRef.

Belzung F, Raclot T, Groscolas R. Fish oil n-3 fatty acids selectively limit the hypertrophy of abdominal fat depots in growing rats fed high-fat diets. Am J Physiol. 1993; 264: R1111-8, PMID.

Madsen L, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005; 1740: 266-86, CrossRef.

Raclot T, Groscolas R, Langin D, Ferré P. Site-specific regulation of gene expression by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat white adipose tissues. J Lipid Res. 1997; 38: 1963-72. PMID.

Ljusberg J1, Ek-Rylander B, Andersson G. Tartrate-resistant purple acid phosphatase is synthesized as a latent proenzyme and activated by cysteine proteinases. Biochem J. 1999; 343: 63-9, CrossRef.

Angel NZ, Walsh N, Forwood MR, Ostrowski MC, Cassady AI, Hume DA. Transgenic mice overexpressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase exhibit an increased rate of bone turnover. J Bone Miner Res. 2000; 15: 103-10, CrossRef.

Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2003; 112: 1796-808, CrossRef.

Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2003; 112: 1821-30, CrossRef.

Bouloumié A, Curat CA, Sengenès C, Lolmède K, Miranville A, Busse R. Role of macrophage tissue infiltration in metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005; 8: 347-54, CrossRef.

Lång P1, van Harmelen V, Rydén M, Kaaman M, Parini P, Carneheim C, et al. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity. PLoS One. 2008; 3: e1713, CrossRef.

Zuk PA, Zhu M, Ashjian P, De Ugarte DA, Huang JI, Mizuno H, et al. Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells.Mol Biol Cell. 2002; 13: 4279-95, CrossRef.

Nakagami H, Morishita R, Maeda K, Kikuchi Y, Ogihara T, Kaneda Y. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells as a novel option for regenerative cell therapy. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2006; 13: 77-81, CrossRef.

Dicker A, Le Blanc K, Åström G, van Harmelen V, Götherström C, Blomqvist L, et al. Functional studies of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult human adipose tissue. Exp Cell Res. 2005; 308: 283-90, CrossRef.

Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2003; 112: 1785-8., CrossRef.

Liu L, Meydani M. Angiogenesis inhibitors may regulate adiposity. Nutr Rev. 2003; 61: 384-7, CrossRef.

Kolonin MG, Saha PK, Chan L, Pasqualini R, Arap W. Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue. Nat Med. 2004; 10: 625-32, CrossRef.

Rupnick MA, Panigrahy D, Zhang C-, Dallabrida SM, Lowell BB, Langer R, et al. Adipose tissue mass can be regulated through the vasculature. ProcNatl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99: 10730-5, CrossRef.

Fukumura D, Ushiyama A, Duda DG, Xu L, Tam J, Krishna V, et al. Paracrine regulation of angiogenesis and adipocyte differentiation during in vivo adipogenesis. Circ Res. 2003; 93: e88-97, CrossRef.

McDonald DM, Choyke PL. Imaging of angiogenesis: from microscope to clinic. Nat Med. 2003; 9: 713-25, CrossRef.

Rosen ED. The molecular control of adipogenesis, with special reference to lymphatic pathology. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002; 979: 143-58, CrossRef.

Krützfeldt J, Stoffel M. MicroRNAs: a new class of regulatory genes affecting metabolism. Cell Metab. 2006; 4: 9-12, CrossRef.

Bartel DP. MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell. 2004; 116: 281-97, CrossRef.

Selbach M, Schwanhäusser B, Thierfelder N, Fang Z, Khanin R, Rajewsky N. Widespread changes in protein synthesis induced by microRNAs. Nature. 2008; 455: 58-63, CrossRef.

Baek D, Villén J, Shin C, Camargo FD, Gygi SP, Bartel DP. The impact of microRNAs on protein output. Nature. 2008; 455: 64-71, CrossRef.

Xie H, Lim B, Lodish HF. MicroRNAs induced during adipogenesis that accelerate fat cell development are downregulated in obesity. Diabetes. 2009; 58: 1050-7, CrossRef.

Charles AC, Naus CC, Zhu D, Kidder GM, Dirksen ER, Sanderson MJ. Intercellular calcium signaling via gap junctions in glioma cells. J Cell Biol. 1992; 118: 195-201, CrossRef.

Kam Y, Kim DY, Koo SK, Joe CO. Transfer of second messengers through gap junction connexin 43 channels reconstituted in liposomes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998; 1372: 384-8, CrossRef.

Schmalbruch H. Skeletal muscle fibers of newborn rats are coupled by gap junctions. Dev Biol. 1982; 91: 485-90, CrossRef.

Balogh S, Naus CCG, Merrifield PA. Expression of gap junctions in cultured rat L6 cells during myogenesis. Dev Biol. 1993; 155: 351-60, CrossRef.

Proulx A, Merrifield PA, Naus CC. Blocking gap junctional intercellular communication in myoblasts inhibits myogenin and MRF4 expression. Dev Genet. 1997; 20: 133-44, CrossRef.

Lecanda F, Towler DA, Ziambaras K, Cheng S-L, Koval M, Steinberg TH, et al. Gap junctional communication modulates gene expression in osteoblastic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 1998; 9: 2249-58, CrossRef.

Lecanda F, Warlow PM, Sheikh S, Furlan F, Steinberg TH, Civitelli R. Connexin43 deficiency causes delayed ossification, craniofacial abnormalities, and osteoblast dysfunction. J Cell Biol. 2000; 151: 931-44, CrossRef.

Schiller PC, D'Ippolito G, Balkan W, Roos BA, Howard GA. Gap-junctional communication is required for the maturation process of osteoblastic cells in culture. Bone. 2001; 28: 362-9, CrossRef.

Schiller P., D’Ippolito G, Balkan W, Roos B., Howard G. Gap-junctional communication mediates parathyroid hormone stimulation of mineralization in osteoblastic cultures. Bone. 2001; 28: 38-44, CrossRef.

Saez JC, Berthoud VM, Branes MC, Martinez AD, Beyer EC. Plasma membrane channels formed by connexins: Their regulation and functions. Physiol Rev. 2003; 83: 1359-400, CrossRef.

Umezawa A, Hata J. Expression of gap-junctional protein (connexin 43 or alpha-1 gap junction) is down-regulated at the transcriptional level during adipocyte differentiation of H-1/A marrow stromal cells. Cell Struct Funct. 1992; 17: 177-84, CrossRef.

Yanagiya T, Tanabe A, Hotta K. Gap-junctional communication is required for mitotic clonal expansion during adipogenesis. Obesity. 2007; 15: 572-82, CrossRef.

Lazar MA. How now, brown fat? Science. 2008; 321: 1048-9, CrossRef.

Timmons JA, Wennmalm K, Larsson O, Walden TB, Lassmann T, Petrovic N, et al. Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007; 104: 4401-6, CrossRef.

Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Developmental biology: Neither fat nor flesh. Nature. 2008; 454: 947-8, CrossRef.

Rothwell NJ, Stock MJ. Diet-induced thermogenesis. Adv Nutr Res. 1983; 5: 201-20, CrossRef.

Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Després JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Thériault G, et al. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. 1990; 322: 1477-82, CrossRef.

Leibel RL. Molecular physiology of weight regulation in mice and humans. Int J Obes. 2008; 32: S98-108, CrossRef.

Wijers SLJ, Saris WHM, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD. Recent advances in adaptive thermogenesis: potential implications for the treatment of obesity. Obes Rev. 2009; 10: 218-26, CrossRef.

Seale P, Bjork B, Yang W, Kajimura S, Chin S, Kuang S, et al. PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature. 2008; 454: 961-7, CrossRef.

Seale P, Kajimura S, Yang W, Chin S, Rohas LM, Uldry M, et al. Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. Cell Metab. 2007; 6: 38-54, CrossRef.

Tseng YH, Kokkotou E, Schulz TJ, Huang TL, Winnay JN, Taniguchi CM, et al. New role of bone morphogenetic protein 7 in brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. Nature. 2008; 454: 1000-4, CrossRef.

Seale P, Lazar MA. Brown fat in humans: Turning up the heat on obesity. Diabetes. 2009; 58: 1482-4, CrossRef.

Rosen ED. The transcriptional basis of adipocyte development. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005; 73: 31-4, CrossRef.

Choy L. Roles of autocrine TGF-beta receptor and smad signaling in adipocyte differentiation. J Cell Biol. 2000; 149: 667-82, CrossRef.

Choy L. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits adipocyte differentiation by smad3 interacting with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and repressing C/EBP transactivation function. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 9609-19, CrossRef.

Sparks RL, Allen BJ, Zygmunt AI, Strauss EE. Loss of differentiation control in transformed 3T3 T proadipocytes. Cancer Res. 1993; 53: 1770-6, PMID.

Samad F, Yamamoto K, Pandey M, Loskutoff DJ. Elevated expression of transforming growth factor-beta in adipose tissue from obese mice. Mol Med. 1997; 3: 37-48, PMID.

Horie T, Ono K, Kinoshita M, Nishi H, Nagao K, Kawamura T, et al. TG-interacting factor is required for the differentiation of preadipocytes. J Lipid Res. 2008; 49: 1224-34, CrossRef.

Pi-Sunyer FX. Obesity: determinants and therapeutic initiatives. Nutrition. 1991; 7: 292-4, PMID.

Krieger-Brauer HI, Kather H. Human fat cells possess a plasma membrane-bound H2O2-generating system that is activated by insulin via a mechanism bypassing the receptor kinase. J Clin Invest. 1992; 89: 1006-13, CrossRef.

Bedard K, Krause KH. The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: Physiology and pathophysiology. Physiol Rev. 2007; 87: 245-313, CrossRef.

Ambasta RK, Kumar P, Griendling KK, Schmidt HH, Busse R, Brandes RP. Direct interaction of the novel Nox proteins with p22phox is required for the formation of a functionally active NADPH oxidase. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 45935-41, CrossRef.

Sturrock A, Huecksteadt TP, Norman K, Sanders K, Murphy TM, Chitano P, et al. Nox4 mediates TGF-beta1-induced retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, proliferation, and hypertrophy in human airway smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007; 292: L1543-55, CrossRef.

Schröder K, Wandzioch K, Helmcke I, Brandes RP. Nox4 acts as a switch between differentiation and proliferation in preadipocytes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009; 29: 239-45, CrossRef.

Esau C, Kang X, Peralta E, Hanson E, Marcusson EG, Ravichandran LV, et al. MicroRNA-143 regulates adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 52361-5, CrossRef.

Sul H, Smas C, Mei B, Zhou L. Function of pref-1 as an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation. Int J Obes. 2000; 24: S15-9, CrossRef.

Smas CM, Sul HS. Pref-1, a protein containing EGF-like repeats, inhibits adipocyte differentiation. Cell. 1993; 73: 725-34, CrossRef.

Smas CM, Sul HS. Molecular mechanisms of adipocyte differentiation and inhibitory action of Pref-1. Crit Rev Eukar Gene Expr. 1997; 7: 281-98, CrossRef.

Sul HS, Smas CM, Wang D, Chen L. Regulation of fat synthesis and adipose differentiation. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1998; 60: 317-45, CrossRef.

Smas CM, Kachinskas D, Liu C-M, Xie X, Dircks LK, Sul HS. Transcriptional control of the pref-1 gene in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation: Sequence requirement for differentiayion-dependent suppression. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 31751-8, CrossRef.

Shimomura I, Hammer RE, Richardson JA, Ikemoto S, Bashmakov Y, Goldstein JL, et al. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice expressing nuclear SREBP-1c in adipose tissue: model for congenital generalized lipodystrophy. Genes Dev. 1998; 12: 3182-94, CrossRef.

Tseng YH, Butte AJ, Kokkotou E, Yechoor VK, Taniguchi CM, Kriauciunas KM, et al. Prediction of preadipocyte differentiation by gene expression reveals role of insulin receptor substrates and necdin. Nat Cell Biol. 2005; 7: 601-11, CrossRef.

Zhou YT, Wang ZW, Higa M, Newgard CB, Unger RH. Reversing adipocyte differentiation: Implications for treatment of obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999; 96: 2391-5, CrossRef.

Kim KA, Kim JH, Wang Y, Sul HS. Pref-1 (Preadipocyte Factor 1) activates the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2007; 27: 2294-308, CrossRef.

Cho KJ. A-lipoic acid inhibits adipocyte differentiation by regulating pro-adipogenic transcription factors via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 34823-33, CrossRef.

Isakson P, Hammarstedt A, Gustafson B, Smith U. Impaired preadipocyte differentiation in human abdominal obesity: role of Wnt, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inflammation. Diabetes. 2009; 58: 1550-7, CrossRef.

Bouloumié A, Lolmède K, Sengenès C, Galitzky J, Lafontan M. Angiogenesis in adipose tissue. Ann Endocrinol. 2002; 63: 91-5, PMID.

Crandall DL, Hausman GJ, Kral JG. A review of the microcirculation of adipose tissue: anatomic, metabolic, and angiogenic perspectives. Microcirculation. 1997; 4: 211-32, CrossRef.

Silverman KJ, Lund DP, Zetter BR, Lainey LL, Shahood JA, Freiman DG, et al. Angiogenic activity of adipose tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988; 153: 347-52, CrossRef.

Hausman GJ, Richardson RL. Adipose tissue angiogenesis. J Anim Sci. 2004; 82: 925-34, PMID.

Baillargeon J, Rose DP. Obesity, adipokines, and prostate cancer (review). Int J Oncol. 2006; 28: 737-45, CrossRef.

Friedman JM, Halaas JL. Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature.1998; 395: 763-70, CrossRef.

Hiraoka Y, Yamashiro H, Yasuda K, Kimura Y, Inamoto T, Tabata Y. In situ regeneration of adipose tissue in rat fat pad by combining a collagen scaffold with gelatin microspheres containing basic fibroblast growth factor. Tissue Eng. 2006; 12: 1475-87, CrossRef.

Kuo LE, Zukowska Z. Stress, NPY and vascular remodeling: Implications for stress-related diseases. Peptides. 2007; 28: 435-40, CrossRef.

Lijnen HR, Christiaens V, Scroyen I, Voros G, Tjwa M, Carmeliet P, et al. Impaired adipose tissue development in mice with inactivation of placental growth factor function. Diabetes. 2006; 55: 2698-704, CrossRef.

Mu H, Ohashi R, Yan S, Chai H, Yang H, Lin P, et al. Adipokine resistin promotes in vitro angiogenesis of human endothelial cells. Cardiovas Res. 2006; 70: 146-57, CrossRef.

Saiki A, Watanabe F, Murano T, Miyashita Y, Shirai K. Hepatocyte growth factor secreted by cultured adipocytes promotes tube formation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Int J Obes. 2006; 30: 1676-84, CrossRef.

Samad F, Pandey M, Loskutoff DJ. Tissue factor gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998; 95: 7591-6, CrossRef.

Voros G, Maquoi E, Demeulemeester D, Clerx N, Collen D, Lijnen HR. Modulation of angiogenesis during adipose tissue development in murine models of obesity. Endocrinology. 2005; 146: 4545–54, CrossRef.

Dobson DE, Kambe A, Block E, Dion T, Lu H, Castellot JJ, et al. 1-Butyryl-Glycerol: A novel angiogenesis factor secreted by differentiating adipocytes. Cell. 1990; 61: 223-30, CrossRef.

Wilkison WO, Choy L, Spiegelman BM. Biosynthetic regulation of monobutyrin, an adipocyte-secreted lipid with angiogenic activity. J Biol Chem. 1991; 266: 16886-91, PMID.

Bouloumie A, Sengenes C, Portolan G, Galitzky J, Lafontan M. Adipocyte produces matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9: Involvement in adipose differentiation. Diabetes. 2001; 50: 2080-6, CrossRef.

Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation, stress, and diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 1111-9, CrossRef.

Cao Y. Angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity. J Clin Invest. 2007; 117: 2362-8, CrossRef.

Dallabrida SM, Zurakowski D, Shih S-C, Smith LE, Folkman J, Moulton KS, et al. Adipose tissue growth and regression are regulated by angiopoietin-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003; 311: 563-71, CrossRef.

Murphy DJ, Vance J. Mechanisms of lipid-body formation. Trends Biochem. 1999; 24: 109-15, CrossRef.

Jiang HP, Serrero G. Isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA coding for an adipose differentiation-related protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992; 89: 7856-60, CrossRef.

Marchesan D, Rutberg M, Andersson L, Asp L, Larsson T, Borén J, et al. A phospholipase D-dependent process forms lipid droplets containing caveolin, adipocyte differentiation-related protein, and vimentin in a cell-free system. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 27293-300, CrossRef.

Andersson L, Boström P, Ericson J, Rutberg M, Magnusson B, Marchesan D, et al. PLD1 and ERK2 regulate cytosolic lipid droplet formation. J Cell Sci. 2006; 119: 2246-57, CrossRef.

Gonzalez-Baro MR, Lewin TM, Coleman RA. Regulation of triglyceride metabolism II. Function of mitochondrial GPAT1 in the regulation of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and insulin action. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006; 292: G1195-9, CrossRef.

Coleman RA, Lewin TM, Muoio DM. Physiological and nutritional regulation of enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000; 20: 77-103, CrossRef.

Carman GM, Han G-S. Roles of phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism. Trends Biochem. 2006; 31: 694-9, CrossRef.

Stone SJ, Levin MC, Farese RV Jr. Membrane topology and identification of key functional amino acid residues of murine acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 40273-82, CrossRef.

Turkish A, Sturley SL. Regulation of triglyceride metabolism. I. Eukaryotic neutral lipid synthesis: “Many ways to skin ACAT or a DGAT.” Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006; 292: G953-7, CrossRef.

Welte MA, Gross SP, Postner M, Block SM, Wieschaus EF. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in drosophila embryos: Forces and kinetics. Cell. 1998; 92: 547-57, CrossRef.

Boström P, Rutberg M, Ericsson J, Holmdahl P, Andersson L, Frohman MA, et al. Cytosolic lipid droplets increase in size by microtubule-dependent complex formation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005; 25: 1945-51, CrossRef.

Hong W. SNAREs and traffic. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005; 1744: 493-517, PMID.

Jahn R, Scheller RH. SNAREs: engines for membrane fusion. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006; 7: 631-43, CrossRef.

Olofsson SO, Boström P, Andersson L, Rutberg M, Levin M, Perman J, et al. Triglyceride containing lipid droplets and lipid droplet-associated proteins. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008; 19: 441-7, CrossRef.

Boström P, Andersson L, Rutberg M, Perman J, Lidberg U, Johansson BR, et al. SNARE proteins mediate fusion between cytosolic lipid droplets and are implicated in insulin sensitivity. Nat Cell Biol. 2007; 9: 1286-93, CrossRef.

Machann J, Haring H, Schick F, Stumvoll M. Intramyocellular lipids and insulin resistance. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004; 6: 239-48, CrossRef.

Falholt K, Jensen I, Jensen SL, Mortensen H, Vølund A, Heding LG, et al. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1988; 5: 27-31, CrossRef.

Krssak M, Falk Petersen K, Dresner A, DiPietro L, Vogel SM, Rothman DL, et al. Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study. Diabetologia.1999; 42: 113-6, CrossRef.

Yki-Järvinen H. Ectopic fat accumulation: an important cause of insulin resistance in humans. J R Soc Med. 2002; 95 (Suppl 42): 39-4, PMID.

Yu YH. Adipocyte signaling and lipid homeostasis: Sequelae of insulin-resistant adipose tissue. Circ Res. 2005; 96: 1042-52, CrossRef.

Kovacs P, Stumvoll M. Fatty acids and insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 19: 625-35, CrossRef.

Sell H, Dietze-Schroeder D, Eckel J. The adipocyte–myocyte axis in insulin resistance. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 17: 416-22, CrossRef.

Goossens GH. The role of adipose tissue dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. Physiol Behav. 2008; 94: 206-18, CrossRef.

Savage DB, Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Disordered lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Physiol Rev. 2007; 87: 507-20, CrossRef.

Morino K, Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans and their potential links with mitochondrial dysfunction. Diabetes. 2006; 55 (Suppl 2): S9-15, CrossRef.

Summers S. Ceramides in insulin resistance and lipotoxicity. Prog Lipid Res. 2006; 45: 42-72, CrossRef.

Koves TR, Ussher JR, Noland RC, Slentz D, Mosedale M, Ilkayeva O, et al. Mitochondrial overload and incomplete fatty acid oxidation contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2008; 7: 45-56, CrossRef.

Martin S, Parton RG. Lipid droplets: a unified view of a dynamic organelle. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006; 7: 373-8, CrossRef.

Ozeki S, Cheng J, Tauchi-Sato K, Hatano N, Taniguchi H, Fujimoto T. Rab18 localizes to lipid droplets and induces their close apposition to the endoplasmic reticulum-derived membrane. J Cell Sci. 2005; 118: 2601-11, CrossRef.

Binns D, Januszewski T, Chen Y, Hill J, Markin VS, Zhao Y, et al. An intimate collaboration between peroxisomes and lipid bodies. J Cell Biol. 2006; 173: 719-31, CrossRef.

Liu P, Bartz R, Zehmer JK, Ying Y, Zhu M, Serrero G, et al. Rab-regulated interaction of early endosomes with lipid droplets. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007; 1773: 784-93, CrossRef.

Shaw CS, Jones DA, Wagenmakers AJM. Network distribution of mitochondria and lipid droplets in human muscle fibres. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007; 129: 65-72, CrossRef.

Puri V, Czech MP. Lipid droplets: FSP27 knockout enhances their sizzle. J Clin Invest. 2008; 118: 2693-6, CrossRef.

Nishino N, Tamori Y, Tateya S, Kawaguchi T, Shibakusa T, Mizunoya W, et al. FSP27 contributes to efficient energy storage in murine white adipocytes by promoting the formation of unilocular lipid droplets. J Clin Invest. 2008; 118: 2808-21, CrossRef.

Ducharme NA, Bickel PE. Minireview: Lipid droplets in lipogenesis and lipolysis. Endocrinology. 2008; 149: 942-9, CrossRef.

Londos C, Brasaemle DL, Schultz CJ, Segrest JP, Kimmel AR. Perilipins, ADRP, and other proteins that associate with intracellular neutral lipid droplets in animal cells. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1999; 10: 51-8, CrossRef.

Dalen KT, Dahl T, Holter E, Arntsen B, Londos C, Sztalryd C, et al. LSDP5 is a PAT protein specifically expressed in fatty acid oxidizing tissues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007; 1771: 210-27, CrossRef.

Brasaemle DL. Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid droplets and control of lipolysis. J Lipid Res. 2007; 48: 2547-59, CrossRef.

Wolins NE, Quaynor BK, Skinner JR, Tzekov A, Croce MA, Gropler MC, et al. OXPAT/PAT-1 is a PPAR-induced lipid droplet protein that promotes fatty acid utilization. Diabetes. 2006; 55: 3418-28, CrossRef.

Yamaguchi T, Matsushita S, Motojima K, Hirose F, Osumi T. MLDP, a novel PAT family protein localized to lipid droplets and enriched in the heart, is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 14232-40, CrossRef.

Lu X, Gruia-Gray J, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Londos C, et al. The murine perilipin gene: the lipid droplet-associated perilipins derive from tissue-specific, mRNA splice variants and define a gene family of ancient origin. Mamm Genome. 2001; 12: 741-9, CrossRef.

Greenberg AS, Egan JJ, Wek SA, Garty NB, Blanchette-Mackie EJ, Londos C. Perilipin, a major hormonally regulated adipocyte-specific phosphoprotein associated with the periphery of lipid storage droplets. J Biol Chem. 1991; 266: 11341-6, PMID.

Servetnick DA, Brasaemle DL, Gruia-Gray J, Kimmel AR, Wolff J, Londos C. Perilipins are associated with cholesteryl ester droplets in steroidogenic adrenal cortical and Leydig cells. J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 16970-3, CrossRef.

Souza SC, Muliro KV, Liscum L, Lien P, Yamamoto MT, Schaffer JE, et al. Modulation of hormone-sensitive lipase and protein kinase A-mediated lipolysis by perilipin A in an adenoviral reconstituted system. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 8267-72, CrossRef.

Tansey JT, Huml AM, Vogt R, Davis KE, Jones JM, Fraser KA, et al. Functional studies on native and mutated forms of perilipins. A role in protein kinase A-mediated lipolysis of triacylglycerols. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 8401-6, CrossRef.

Subramanian V, Rothenberg A, Gomez C, Cohen AW, Garcia A, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Perilipin A mediates the reversible binding of CGI-58 to lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 42062-71, CrossRef.

Yamaguchi T, Omatsu N, Matsushita S, Osumi T. CGI-58 interacts with perilipin and is localized to lipid droplets. Possible involvement of CGI-58 mislocalization in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 30490-7, CrossRef.

Lass A, Zimmermann R, Haemmerle G, Riederer M, Schoiswohl G, Schweiger M, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis of cellular fat stores is activated by CGI-58 and defective in Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome. Cell Metab. 2006; 3: 309-19, CrossRef.

Schweiger M, Schreiber R, Haemmerle G, Lass A, Fledelius C, Jacobsen P, et al. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are the major enzymes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol catabolism. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 40236-41, CrossRef.

Arimura N, Horiba T, Imagawa M, Shimizu M, Sato R. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulates expression of the perilipin gene in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 10070-6, CrossRef.

Qi L, Corella D, Sorlí J, Portolés O, Shen H, Coltell O, et al. Genetic variation at the perilipin (PLIN) locus is associated with obesity-related phenotypes in White women. Clin Genet. 2004; 66: 299-310, CrossRef.

Qi L, Shen H, Larson I, Schaefer EJ, Greenberg AS, Tregouet DA, et al. Gender-specific association of a perilipin gene haplotype with obesity risk in a white population. Obes Res. 2004; 12: 1758-65, CrossRef.

Qi L, Tai ES, Tan CE, Shen H, Chew SK, Greenberg AS, et al. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium structure of the human perilipin gene (PLIN) and haplotype association with increased obesity risk in a multiethnic Asian population. J Mol Med. 2005; 83: 448-56, CrossRef.

Corella D, Qi L, Tai ES, Deurenberg-Yap M, Tan CE, Chew SK, et al. Perilipin gene variation determines higher susceptibility to insulin resistance in Asian women when consuming a high-saturated fat, low-carbohydrate diet. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 1313-9, CrossRef.

Tai ES, Ordovas JM. The role of perilipin in human obesity and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007; 18: 152-6, CrossRef.

Souza SC, Christoffolete MA, Ribeiro MO, Miyoshi H, Strissel KJ, Stancheva ZS, et al. Perilipin regulates the thermogenic actions of norepinephrine in brown adipose tissue. J Lipid Res. 2007; 48: 1273-9, CrossRef.

Andersson I, Arner P, Mottagui-Tabar S, Ryden M, Lofgren P, Faulds G, et al. Evidence for an important role of perilipin in the regulation of human adipocyte lipolysis. Diabetologia. 2003; 46: 789-97, CrossRef.

Londos C, Sztalryd C, Tansey JT, Kimmel AR. Role of PAT proteins in lipid metabolism. Biochimie. 2005; 87: 45-9, CrossRef.

Arner P. Human fat cell lipolysis: biochemistry, regulation and clinical role. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 19: 471-82, CrossRef.

Schaffer JE. Lipotoxicity: when tissues overeat. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003; 14: 281-7, CrossRef.

Unger RH. Lipotoxic diseases. Annu Rev Med. 2002; 53: 319-36, CrossRef.

Zechner R, Kienesberger PC, Haemmerle G, Zimmermann R, Lass A. Adipose triglyceride lipase and the lipolytic catabolism of cellular fat stores. J Lipid Res. 2008; 50: 3-21, CrossRef.

Langin D. Adipose tissue lipolysis as a metabolic pathway to define pharmacological strategies against obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res. 2006; 53: 482-91, CrossRef.

Holm C, Osterlund T, Laurell H, Contreras JA. Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone-sensitive lipase and lipolysis. Annu Rev Nutr. 2000; 20: 365-93, CrossRef.

Lafontan M, Berlan M. Fat cell adrenergic receptors and the control of white and brown fat cell function. J Lipid Res.1993; 34: 1057-91, PMID.

Collins S, Cao W, Robidoux J. Learning new tricks from old dogs: β-adrenergic receptors teach new lessons on firing up adipose tissue metabolism. Mol Endocrinol. 2004; 18: 2123-31, CrossRef.

Holm C. Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone-sensitive lipase and lipolysis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003; 31: 1120-4, CrossRef.

Larrouy D, Galitzky J, Lafontan M. A1 adenosine receptors in the human fat cell: tissue distribution and regulation of radioligand binding. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991; 206: 139-47, CrossRef.

Richelsen B. Release and effects of prostaglandins in adipose tissue. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992; 47: 171-82, CrossRef.

Bradley RL, Mansfield JPR, Maratos-Flier E. Neuropeptides, including neuropeptide Y and melanocortins, mediate lipolysis in murine adipocytes. Obes Res. 2005; 13: 653-61, CrossRef.

Offermanns S. The nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A or PUMA-G) as a new therapeutic target. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006; 27: 384-90, CrossRef.

Degerman E, Landström TR, Wijkander J, Holst LS, Ahmad F, Belfrage P, et al. Phosphorylation and activation of hormone-sensitive adipocyte phosphodiesterase type 3B. Methods. 1998; 14: 43-53, CrossRef.

Taniguchi CM, Emanuelli B, Kahn CR. Critical nodes in signalling pathways: insights into insulin action. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006; 7: 85-96, CrossRef.

Yeaman SJ. Hormone-sensitive lipase — A multipurpose enzyme in lipid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990; 1052: 128-32, CrossRef.

Zimmermann R, Strauss JG, Haemmerle G, Schoiswohl G, Birner-Gruenberger R, Riederer M, et al. Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase. Science. 2004; 306: 1383-6, CrossRef.

Villena JA, Roy S, Sarkadi-Nagy E, Kim K-H, Sul HS. Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin domain-containing protein, is induced by fasting and glucocorticoids: ectopic expression of desnutrin increases triglyceride hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 47066-75, CrossRef.

Jenkins CM, Mancuso DJ, Yan W, Sims HF, Gibson B, Gross RW. Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 48968-75, CrossRef.

Wilson PA, Gardner SD, Lambie NM, Commans SA, Crowther DJ. Characterization of the human patatin-like phospholipase family. J Lipid Res. 2006; 47: 1940-9, CrossRef.

Zechner R, Strauss JG, Haemmerle G, Lass A, Zimmermann R. Lipolysis: pathway under construction. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005; 16: 333-40, CrossRef.

Notari L, Baladron V, Aroca-Aguilar JD, Balko N, Heredia R, Meyer C, et al. Identification of a lipase-linked cell membrane receptor for pigment epithelium-derived factor. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 38022-37, CrossRef.

Lefèvre C, Jobard F, Caux F, Bouadjar B, Karaduman A, Heilig R, et al. Mutations in CGI-58, the gene encoding a new protein of the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily, in Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2001; 69: 1002-12, CrossRef.

Miyoshi H, Perfield JW, Souza SC, Shen W-J, Zhang H-H, Stancheva ZS, et al. Control of adipose triglyceride lipase action by serine 517 of perilipin a globally regulates protein kinase A-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006; 282: 996-1002, CrossRef.

Inohara N, Koseki T, Chen S, Wu X, Núñez G. CIDE, a novel family of cell death activators with homology to the 45 kDa subunit of the DNA fragmentation factor. EMBO J. 1998; 17: 2526-33, CrossRef.

Puri V, Konda S, Ranjit S, Aouadi M, Chawla A, Chouinard M, et al. Fat-specific protein 27, a novel lipid droplet protein that enhances triglyceride storage. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282: 34213-8, CrossRef.

Puri V, Ranjit S, Konda S, Nicoloro SMC, Straubhaar J, Chawla A, et al. Cidea is associated with lipid droplets and insulin sensitivity in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008; 105: 7833-8, CrossRef.

Toh SY, Gong J, Du G, Li JZ, Yang S, Ye J, et al. Up-regulation of mitochondrial activity and acquirement of brown adipose tissue-like property in the white adipose tissue of fsp27 deficient mice. PLoS One. 2008; 3: e2890, CrossRef.

Nawrocki AR, Scherer PE. Keynote review: The adipocyte as a drug discovery target. Drug Discov Today. 2005; 10: 1219-30, CrossRef.

Cook KS, Min HY, Johnson D, Chaplinsky RJ, Flier JS, Hunt CR, et al. Adipsin: a circulating serine protease homolog secreted by adipose tissue and sciatic nerve. Science. 1987; 237: 402-5, CrossRef.

Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature. 1994; 372: 425-32, CrossRef.

Scherer PE, Williams S, Fogliano M, Baldini G, Lodish HF. A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 26746-9, CrossRef.

Hu E, Liang P, Spiegelman BM. AdipoQ is a novel adipose-specific gene dysregulated in obesity. J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 10697-703, CrossRef.

Maeda K, Okubo K, Shimomura I, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Matsubara K. cDNA Cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen-like factor, apM1 (AdiposeMost abundant gene transcript 1). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996; 221: 286-9, CrossRef.

Nakano Y, Tobe T, Choi-Miura N-H, Mazda T, Tomita M. Isolation and characterization of GBP28, a novel gelatin-binding protein purified from human plasma. J Biochem. 1996; 120: 803-12, CrossRef.

Steppan CM, Bailey ST, Bhat S, Brown EJ, Banerjee RR, Wright CM, et al. The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature. 2001; 409: 307-12, CrossRef.

Rajala MW, Lin Y, Ranalletta M, Yang XM, Qian H, Gingerich R, et al. Cell type-specific expression and coregulation of murine resistin and resistin-like molecule-α in adipose tissue. Mol Endocrinol. 2002; 16: 1920-30, CrossRef.

Cianflone K, Maslowska M, Sniderman AD. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), an adipocyte autocrine: new directions. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1999; 10: 31-41, CrossRef.

Fukuhara A, Matsuda M, Nishizawa M, Segawa K, Tanaka M, Kishimoto K, et al. Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin. Science. 2005; 307: 426-30, CrossRef.

Arner P. Visfatin: A true or false trail to type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006; 91: 28-30, CrossRef.

Yang Q, Graham TE, Mody N, Preitner F, Peroni OD, Zabolotny JM, et al. Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2005; 436: 356-62, CrossRef.

Lin Y, Rajala MW, Berger JP, Moller DE, Barzilai N, Scherer PE. Hyperglycemia-induced production of acute phase reactants in adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 42077-83, CrossRef.

Scherer PE. Adipose tissue: From lipid storage compartment to endocrine organ. Diabetes. 2006; 55: 1537-45, CrossRef.

Ahima RS, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2000;11:3 27-32, CrossRef.

Frühbeck G1, Gómez-Ambrosi J, Muruzábal FJ, Burrell MA. The adipocyte: a model for integration of endocrine and metabolic signaling in energy metabolism regulation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 280: E827-47, PMID.

Fain JN, Madan AK, Hiler ML, Cheema P, Bahouth SW. Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans. Endocrinology. 2004; 145: 2273-82, CrossRef.

Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89: 2548-56, CrossRef.

Ronti T, Lupattelli G, Mannarino E. The endocrine function of adipose tissue: an update. Clin Endocrinol. 2006; 64:355-65, CrossRef.

Fortuño A, Rodríguez A, Gómez-Ambrosi J, Frühbeck G, Díez J. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: role of leptin and adiponectin in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. J Physiol Bichem. 2003; 49: 51-60, CrossRef.

Mora S, Pessin JE. An adipocentric view of signaling and intracellular trafficking. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2002; 18: 345-56, CrossRef.

Lyon CJ, Law RE, Hsueh WA. Minireview: Adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003; 144: 2195-200, CrossRef.

Matsubara M, Maruoka S, Katayose S. Inverse relationship between plasma adiponectin and leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002; 147: 173-80, CrossRef.

Retnakaran R, Hanley AJG, Raif N, Connelly PW, Sermer M, Zinman B. C-reactive protein and gestational diabetes: The central role of maternal obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 3507-12, CrossRef.

Laimer M, Ebenbichler CF, Kaser S, Sandhofer A, Weiss H, Nehoda H, et al. Markers of chronic inflammation and obesity: a prospective study on the reversibility of this association in middle-aged women undergoing weight loss by surgical intervention. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002; 26: 659-62, CrossRef.

Yudkin JS, Stehouwer CDA, Emeis JJ, Coppack SW. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: Associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction : A potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999; 19: 972-8, CrossRef.

Engeli S, Feldpausch M, Gorzelniak K, Hartwig F, Heintze U, Janke J, et al. Association between adiponectin and mediators of inflammation in obese women. Diabetes. 2003; 52: 942-7, CrossRef.

Esposito K, Pontillo A, Di Palo C, Giugliano G, Masella M, Marfella R, et al. Effect of weight loss and lifestyle changes on vascular inflammatory markers in obese women. JAMA. 2003; 289: 1799-804, CrossRef.

Ramsay JE, Ferrell WR, Crawford L, Wallace AM, Greer IA, Sattar N. Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of metabolic, vascular, and inflammatory pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 4231-7, CrossRef.

Esposito K, Pontillo A, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, Marfella R, Nicoletti G, et al. Association of low interleukin-10 levels with the metabolic syndrome in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88: 1055-8, CrossRef.

Vozarova B, Weyer C, Hanson K, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action, and insulin secretion. Obes Res. 2001; 9: 414-7, CrossRef.

Skurk T, van Harmelen V, Lee Y-M, Wirth A, Hauner H. Relationship between IL-6, leptin and adiponectin and variables of fibrinolysis in overweight and obese hypertensive patients. Horm Metab Res. 2002; 34: 659-63, CrossRef.

Bruun J, Verdich C, Toubro S, Astrup A, Richelsen B. Association between measures of insulin sensitivity and circulating levels of interleukin-8, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Effect of weight loss in obese men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003; 148: 535-42, CrossRef.

Bastard JP, Maachi M, Van Nhieu JT, Jardel C, Bruckert E, Grimaldi A, et al. Adipose tissue IL-6 content correlates with resistance to insulin activation of glucose uptake both in vivo and in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 2084-9, CrossRef.

Straczkowski M, Dzienis-Straczkowska S, Stêpieñ A, Kowalska I, Szelachowska M, Kinalska I. Plasma interleukin-8 concentrations are increased in obese subjects and related to fat mass and tumor necrosis factor-α system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 4602-6, CrossRef.

Primrose JN, Davies JA, Prentice CR, Hughes R, Johnston D. Reduction in factor VII, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity after surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Thromb Haemost.1992; 68: 396-9, PMID.

Carmichael AR, Tate G, King RFGJ, Sue-Ling HM, Johnston D. Effects of the magenstrasse and mill operation for obesity on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, tissue plasminogen activator, fibrinogen and insulin. Pathophysiol Haemos Thromb. 2002; 32: 40-3, CrossRef.

Sylvan A, Rutegård JN, Janunger KG, Sjölund B, Nilsson TK. Normal plasminogen activator inhibitor levels at long-term follow-up after jejuno-ileal bypass surgery in morbidly obese individuals. Metabolism. 1992; 41: 1370-2, CrossRef.

Sasaki A, Kurisu A, Ohno M, Ikeda Y. Overweight/obesity, smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption are important determinants of plasma PAI-1 levels in healthy men. Am J Med Sci. 2001; 322: 19-23, CrossRef.

Katsuki A, Sumida Y, Murashima S, Murata K, Takarada Y, Ito K, et al. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha are increased in obese patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83: 859-62, CrossRef.

Rehman J, Considine RV, Bovenkerk JE, Li J, Slavens CA, Jones RM, et al. Obesity is associated with increased levels of circulating hepatocyte growth factor. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41: 1408-13, CrossRef.

Skurk T, Alberti-Huber C, Herder C, Hauner H. Relationship between adipocyte size and adipokine expression and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92: 1023-33, CrossRef.

Björntorp P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996; 20: 291-302, PMID.

Regazzetti C, Peraldi P, Gremeaux T, Najem-Lendom R, Ben-Sahra I, Cormont M, et al. Hypoxia decreases insulin signaling pathways in adipocytes. Diabetes. 2008; 58: 95-103, CrossRef.

Gustafson B, Hammarstedt A, Andersson CX, Smith U. Inflamed adipose tissue: A culprit underlying the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007; 27: 2276-83, CrossRef.

Guilherme A, Virbasius JV, Puri V, Czech MP. Adipocyte dysfunctions linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008; 9: 367-77, CrossRef.

Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006; 444: 860-7, CrossRef.

Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signaling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 9507-16, CrossRef.

Rotter V, Nagaev I, Smith U. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is, like IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, overexpressed in human fat cells from insulin-resistant subjects. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 45777-84, CrossRef.

Sevastianova K, Sutinen J, Kannisto K, Hamsten A, Ristola M, Yki-Jarvinen H. Adipose tissue inflammation and liver fat in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 295: E85-E91, CrossRef.

Brook CGD, Lloyd JK, Wolf OH. Relation between age of onset of obesity and size and number of adipose cells. Br med J. 1972; 2: 25-7, CrossRef.

Helmlinger G, Yuan F, Dellian M, Jain RK. Interstitial pH and pO2 gradients in solid tumors in vivo: High-resolution measurements reveal a lack of correlation. Nat Med. 1997; 3: 177-82, CrossRef.

Semenza GL. Surviving ischemia: adaptive responses mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. J Clin Invest. 2000; 106: 809-12, CrossRef.

Mori K. Tripartite management of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell. 2000; 101: 451-4, CrossRef.

Hotamisligil G, Shargill N, Spiegelman B. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science. 1993; 259: 87-91, CrossRef.

Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000; 106: 473-81, CrossRef.

Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Waki H, Terauchi Y, Kubota N, Hara K, et al. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nat Med. 2001; 7: 941-6, PMID.

Maeda N, Shimomura I, Kishida K, Nishizawa H, Matsuda M, Nagaretani H, et al. Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30. Nat Med. 2002; 8: 731-7, CrossRef.

Trayhurn P. Endocrine and signalling role of adipose tissue: new perspectives on fat. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005; 184: 285-93, CrossRef.

Gregor MF, Hotamisligil GS. Thematic review series: Adipocyte biology. Adipocyte stress: the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolic disease. 2007; 48: 1905-14, CrossRef.

Qatanani M, Lazar MA. Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance: many choices on the menu. Genes Dev. 2007; 21: 1443-55, CrossRef.

Shoelson SE, Goldfine AB. Getting away from glucose: fanning the flames of obesity-induced inflammation. Nat Med. 2009; 15: 373-4, CrossRef.

Yki-Jarvinen H, Westerbacka J. The fatty liver and insulin resistance. Curr Mol Med. 2005; 5: 287-95, CrossRef.

Weisberg SP, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2003; 112: 1796-808, CrossRef.

Greenberg AS, Obin MS. Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83: 461S-465S, PMID.

Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB. Inflammation and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2006; 116: 1793-801, CrossRef.

Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2003; 112: 1821-30, CrossRef.

Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet. 2005; 365: 1415-28, CrossRef.

Murano I, Barbatelli G, Parisani V, Latini C, Muzzonigro G, Castellucci M, et al. Dead adipocytes, detected as crown-like structures, are prevalent in visceral fat depots of genetically obese mice. J Lipid Res. 2008; 49: 1562-8, CrossRef.

Lang RA, Bishop JM. Macrophages are required for cell death and tissue remodeling in the developing mouse eye. Cell. 1993; 74: 453-62, CrossRef.

Sorimachi K, Akimoto K, Tsuru K, Ieiri T, Niwa A.. The involvement of tumor necrosis factor in the multinucleation of macrophages. Cell Biol Int. 1995; 19: 547-50, CrossRef.

Strissel KJ, Stancheva Z, Miyoshi H, Perfield JW, DeFuria J, Jick Z, et al. Adipocyte death, adipose tissue remodeling, and obesity complications. Diabetes. 2007; 56: 2910-8, CrossRef.

Boden G. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: Another link between obesity and insulin resistance/inflammation? Diabetes. 2009; 58: 518-9, CrossRef.

Lai E, Bikopoulos G, Wheeler MB, Rozakis-Adcock M, Volchuk A. Differential activation of ER stress and apoptosis in response to chronically elevated free fatty acids in pancreatic beta-cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 294: E540-50, CrossRef.

Zhang K, Kaufman RJ. From endoplasmic-reticulum stress to the inflammatory response. Nature. 2008; 454: 455-62, CrossRef.

Hirosumi J, Tuncman G, Chang L, Görgün CZ, Uysal KT, Maeda K, et al. A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance. Nature. 2002; 420: 333-6, CrossRef.

Schröder M, Kaufman RJ. The mammalian unfolded protein response. Annu Rev Biochem. 2005; 74: 739-89, CrossRef.

Berg AH, Lin Y, Lisanti MP, Scherer PE. Adipocyte differentiation induces dynamic changes in NF- B expression and activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 287: E1178-88, CrossRef.

Yuan M, Konstantopoulos N, Lee J, Hansen L, Li ZW, Karin M, et al. Reversal of obesity- and diet-induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of ikkbeta. Science. 2001; 293: 1673-7, CrossRef.

Zoico E, Zamboni M, Bosello O. New insight into obesity and inflammation. Obes Metab. 2009; 5: 1-3.

Charrière G, Cousin B, Arnaud E, André M, Bacou F, Penicaud L, et al. Preadipocyte conversion to macrophage. Evidence of plasticity. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 9850-5, CrossRef.

Cowan CM, Shi YY, Aalami OO, Chou YF, Mari C, Thomas R, et al. Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects. Nat Biotechnol. 2004; 22: 560-7, CrossRef.

Erickson GR, Gimble JM, Franklin DM, Rice HE, Awad H, Guilak F. Chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002; 290: 763-9, CrossRef.

Rodriguez AM, Pisani D, Dechesne CA, Turc-Carel C, Kurzenne JY, Wdziekonski B, et al. Transplantation of a multipotent cell population from human adipose tissue induces dystrophin expression in the immunocompetent mdx mouse. J Exp Medicine. 2005; 201: 1397-405, CrossRef.

Miyahara Y, Nagaya N, Kataoka M, Yanagawa B, Tanaka K, Hao H, et al. Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction. Nat Med. 2006; 12: 459-65, CrossRef.

Safford KM, Hicok KC, Safford SD, Halvorsen YDC, Wilkison WO, Gimble JM, et al. Neurogenic differentiation of murine and human adipose-derived stromal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002; 294: 371-9, CrossRef.

Gimble JM, Katz AJ, Bunnell BA. Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine. Circ Res. 2007; 100: 1249-60, CrossRef.

Lendeckel S, Jödicke A, Christophis P, Heidinger K, Wolff J, Fraser JK, et al. Autologous stem cells (adipose) and fibrin glue used to treat widespread traumatic calvarial defects: case report. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surg. 2004; 32: 370-3, CrossRef.

García-Olmo D, García-Arranz M, Herreros D, Pascual I, Peiro C, Rodríguez-Montes JA. A phase I clinical trial of the treatment of Crohn's fistula by adipose mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005; 48: 1416-23, CrossRef.

Fang B, Song Y, Lin Q, Zhang Y, Cao Y, Zhao RC, et al. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells as salvage therapy for treatment of severe refractory acute graft-vs.-host disease in two children. Pediatr Transplant. 2007; 11: 814-7, CrossRef.

Yoshimura K, Sato K, Aoi N, Kurita M, Hirohi T, Harii K. Cell-assisted lipotransfer for cosmetic breast augmentation: Supportive use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007; 32: 48-55, CrossRef.

Yoshimura K, Sato K, Aoi N, Kurita M, Inoue K, Suga H, et al. Cell-assisted lipotransfer for facial lipoatrophy: efficacy of clinical use of adipose-derived stem cells. Dermatol Surg. 2008; 34: 1178-85, CrossRef.

Yoshimura K, Asano Y, Aoi N, Kurita M, Oshima Y, Sato K, et al. Progenitor-enriched adipose tissue transplantation as rescue for breast implant complications. Breast. 2010; 16: 169-75, CrossRef.

Yoshimura K, Asano Y. Fat injections to the breast: cosmetic augmentation, implant replacement, inborn deformity, and recnstruction after masectomy In: Hall-Findlay FJ, Evasn GRD, editors. Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Breast. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2010. p.405-20, CrossRef.

Yoshimura K, Suga H, Eto H. Adipose-derived stem/progenitor cells: roles in adipose tissue remodeling and potential use for soft tissue augmentation. Regen Med. 2009; 4: 265-73, CrossRef.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18585/inabj.v1i3.98

Indexed by:

                 

                  

               

     

 

The Prodia Education and Research Institute