High-fat Diet Increases Sprague-Dawley Corticosterone Blood Levels with Nominal Change in Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Level with Signs of Increased Mesenteric Adiposity

Khairil Azwan, Resni Mona, Jannathul Firdous, Dina Keumala Sari, Pamela Rosie David, Noorzaid Muhamad

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Corticosterone is a common hormone in research involving rodents as it is used to indicate and measure stress levels. It was widely reported that certain dietary habits and components induce Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity, with corticosterone found in the bloodstream. Chronic corticosterone presence can portray signs and symptoms of certain endocrine. Certain food and chemicals were found to alter HPA axis activity leading to dysregulation of the HPA axis. Earlier studies have shown enhancement of the HPA axis to produce more glucocorticoids by an unbalanced diet. This study aims to shed more light on this subject.

METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups of seven each and were fed five respective diets (control, high-fat, high-protein, high-sugar, and high-starch), with tap water as drinking water ad libitum. After eight weeks, the rats were euthanized, blood was collected, and serum harvested and kept for analysis. Mesenteric fat was identified, harvested, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and set for viewing under light microscope. The hormones of interest which is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone was extracted from the blood, to be processed accordingly and quantified using the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) analysis technique.

RESULTS: The results showed an increase in Sprague-Dawley corticosterone blood levels with a nominal change in ACTH level. Advanced hypertrophy was observed in mesenteric adipose tissue in the high-fat diet group compared to the other diet groups.

CONCLUSION: This study confirms the negative effect of a high-fat diet on health from a hormonal and adipocyte perspective. A high-fat diet was found to instigate the HPA axis and influence blood corticosterone level.

KEYWORDS: adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH, corticosterone, mesenteric fat, diet


Full Text:

PDF

References


Jiang Y, Botchway B, Hu Z, Fang M. Overexpression of SIRT1 inhibits corticosterone-induced autophagy. Neuroscience. 2019; 411: 11-22, CrossRef.

Lam V, Raineki C, Wang L, Chiu M, Lee G, Ellis L, et al. Role of corticosterone in anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and HPA regulation following prenatal alcohol exposure. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019; 90: 1-15, CrossRef.

Robertson R, Seira Oriach C, Murphy K, Moloney G, Cryan J, Dinan T, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids critically regulate behaviour and gut microbiota development in adolescence and adulthood. Brain Behav Immun. 2017; 59: 21-37, CrossRef.

Foroozan P, Koushkie Jahromi M, Nemati J, Sepehri H, Safari M, Brand S. Probiotic supplementation and high-intensity interval training modify anxiety-like behaviors and corticosterone in high-fat diet-induced obesity mice. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6): 1762, CrossRef.

Serradell A, Torrecillas S, Makol A, Valdenegro V, Fernández-Montero A, Acosta F, et al. Prebiotics and phytogenics functional additives in low fish meal and fish oil based diets for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Effects on stress and immune responses. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020; 100: 219-29, CrossRef.

Shin A, Balasubramanian P, Suryadevara P, Zyskowski J, Herdt T, Mohan Kumar S, et al. Metformin effectively restores the HPA axis function in diet-induced obese rats. Int J Obes. 2020; 45(2): 383-95, CrossRef.

Razzoli M, Pearson C, Crow S, Bartolomucci A. Stress, overeating, and obesity: Insights from human studies and preclinical models. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017; 76: 154-62, CrossRef.

de la Iglesia R, Loria-Kohen V, Zulet MA, Martinez J A, Reglero G, Ramirez de Molina A. Dietary strategies implicated in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(11): 1877, CrossRef.

Neeland I, Ross R, Després J, Matsuzawa Y, Yamashita S, Shai I, et al. Visceral and ectopic fat, atherosclerosis, and cardiometabolic disease: a position statement. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019; 7(9): 715-25, CrossRef.

Longo M, Zatterale F, Naderi J, Parrillo L, Formisano P, Raciti GA, et al. Adipose tissue dysfunction as determinant of obesity-associated metabolic complications. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(9): 2358, CrossRef.

Azwan K, Mona R, Firdous J, David PR, Muhamad N. A whey-based, high-protein diet promotes the best body weight and blood sugar control when compared with other types of diet in male Sprague Dawley rats. RSU International Research Conference 2021 on Science and Technology. 2021; 2021: 68-74, article.

Viljoen FP, Brand L, Smit EJ. An optimized method for the analysis of corticosterone in rat plasma by UV-HPLC. Medical Technology SA. 2012; 26(2): 39-42, article.

Qian Y, Lei G, Wen L. Brain-specific deletion of TRIM13 promotes metabolic stress-triggered insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and neuroinflammation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020; 527(1): 138-45, CrossRef.

Deng Q, Riquelme D, Trinh L, Low M, Tomić M, Stojilkovic S, et al. Rapid glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of ACTH secretion involves ligand-dependent membrane association of glucocorticoid receptors. Endocrinology. 2015; 156(9): 3215-27, CrossRef.

Harno E, Gali Ramamoorthy T, Coll A, White A. POMC: the physiological power of hormone processing. Physiol Rev. 2018; 98(4): 2381-430, CrossRef.

Shin AC, Mohan Kumar SMJ, Balasubramanian P, Sirivelu MP, Linning K, Woolcock A, et al. Responsiveness of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to leptin is impaired in diet-induced obese rats. Nutr Diabetes. 2019; 9(1): 10, CrossRef.

Hryhorczuk C, Décarie-Spain L, Sharma S, Daneault C, Rosiers C, Alquier T, et al. Saturated high-fat feeding independent of obesity alters hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function but not anxiety-like behaviour. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2017; 83: 142-9, CrossRef.

Tsai S, Wu H, Chen P, Chen Y, Yu M, Tzeng S, et al. Stress aggravates high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves the amygdala and is associated with Changes in Neuroplasticity. Neuroendocrinology. 2018; 107(2): 147-57, CrossRef.

Lizarbe B, Soares A, Larsson S, Duarte J. Neurochemical modifications in the hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus of mice exposed to long-term high-fat diet. Front Neurosci. 2019; 12: 985, CrossRef.

Shen Y, Huang G, McCormick B, Song T, Xu X. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet. PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(7): e0181684, CrossRef.

Soltani H, Keim NL, Laugero KD. Increasing dietary carbohydrate as part of a healthy whole food diet intervention dampens eight week changes in salivary cortisol and cortisol responsiveness. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11): 2563, CrossRef.

Zhou X, Fouda S, Li D, Zhang K, Ye JM. Involvement of the autophagy-ER stress axis in high fat/carbohydrate diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9): 2626, CrossRef.

Tomiyama A. Stress and obesity. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019; 70(1): 703-18, CrossRef.

Shaikh S, Shaver P, Shewchuk B. High fat diet dysregulates hypothalamic-pituitary axis gene expression levels which are differentially rescued by EPA and DHA ethyl esters. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018; 62(13): 1800219, CrossRef.

Pourabbas M, Bagheri R, Hooshmand Moghadam B, Willoughby D, Candow D, Elliott B, et al. Strategic ingestion of high-protein dairy milk during a resistance training program increases lean mass, strength, and power in trained young males. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3): 948, CrossRef.

Kerksick C, Jagim A, Hagele A, Jäger R. Plant proteins and exercise: what role can plant proteins have in promoting adaptations to exercise?. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6): 1962, CrossRef.

Feng Y, Wang Y, Feng Q, Song X, Wang L, Sun L. Whey protein preloading can alleviate stress adaptation disorder and improve hyperglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2021; 37(8): 753-57, CrossRef.

Sousa R, Ribeiro N, Pinto B, Sanches J, da Silva M, Coêlho C, et al. Long-term high-protein diet intake reverts weight gain and attenuates metabolic dysfunction on high-sucrose-fed adult rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018; 15: 53, CrossRef.

Nielsen C, Hui Y, Nguyen D, Ahnfeldt A, Burrin D, Hartmann B, et al. Alpha-lactalbumin enriched whey protein concentrate to improve gut, immunity and brain development in preterm pigs. Nutrients. 2020; 12(1): 245, CrossRef.

McAllister M, Webb H, Tidwell D, Smith J, Fountain B, Schilling M, et al. Exogenous carbohydrate reduces cortisol response from combined mental and physical stress. Int J Sports Med. 2016; 37(14): 1159-65, CrossRef.

Ibrahim M, Bonfiglio S, Schlögl M, Vinales K, Piaggi P, Venti C, et al. Energy expenditure and hormone responses in humans after overeating high-fructose corn syrup versus whole-wheat foods. Obesity. 2017; 26(1): 141-9, CrossRef.

Wrzosek M, Woźniak J, Włodarek D. The combination of a diversified intake of carbohydrates and fats and supplementation of vitamin D in a diet does not affect the levels of hormones (testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol) in men practicing strength training for the duration of 12 weeks. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 17(21): 8057, CrossRef.

Miao M, Jiang B, Cui S, Zhang T, Jin Z. Slowly digestible starch—a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013; 55(12): 1642-57, CrossRef.

de Sá R, Crisma A, Cruz M, Martins A, Masi L, do Amaral C, et al. Fish oil prevents changes induced by a high-fat diet on metabolism and adipokine secretion in mice subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes. J Physiol. 2016; 594(21): 6301-17, CrossRef.

Zhang XY, Guo CC, Yu YX, Xie L, Chang CQ. Establishment of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance model in rats. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020; 52(3): 557-63, CrossRef.

Inoue K, Toyoda S, Jojima T, Abe S, Sakuma M, Inoue T. Time-restricted feeding prevents high-fat and high-cholesterol diet-induced obesity but fails to ameliorate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Exp Anim. 2021; 70(2): 194-202, CrossRef.

Engin A. The definition and prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 960: 1-17, CrossRef.

Haczeyni F, Bell-Anderson K, Farrell G. Causes and mechanisms of adipocyte enlargement and adipose expansion. Obes Rev. 2017; 19(3): 406-20, CrossRef.

Papargyri P, Zapanti E, Salakos N, Papargyris L, Bargiota A, Mastorakos G. Links between HPA axis and adipokines: clinical implications in paradigms of stress-related disorders. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 13(6): 317-32, CrossRef.

Meiliana A, Mustika N, Wijaya A. Adipose tissue, inflammation (meta-inflammation) and obesity management. Indones Biomed J. 2015; 7(3): 46-129, CrossRef.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18585/inabj.v14i1.1727

Indexed by:

                 

                

                 

 

The Prodia Education and Research Institute