Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin, Fasting Blood Glucose, and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Females with Pre-existing Vitamin D Deficiency

Mona Hmoud AlSheikh, Shayma Ibrahim Almubayadh

Abstract


BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is an essential nutrient requirement for adults and children for normal metabolism and maintenance of healthy bones. Its deficiency may disrupt homeostasis and contribute to systemic diseases, especially in obese patients. This study aimed to examine the effect of vitamin D on insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in young and obese Saudi females with pre-existing hypovitaminosis D.

METHODS: The results of this study were based on prospective parallel randomised controlled clinical trial conducted at King Fahd University Hospital in which 30 obese Saudi young females aging 18-23 years with preexisting vitamin D deficiency contributed. Participants were randomly assigned to either vitamin D supplementation group (experimental) or placebo group (control). Subjects of vitamin D group received 50,000 IU/week of cholecalciferol drops and placebo group received 10 mL of normal saline drops for 12 weeks.

RESULTS: The results of multivariate repeated measures analysis showed a change in serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol levels after vitamin D supplementation (F=296.132, p<0.05). There was also an indication of difference between the vitamin D group and placebo group. The only significant relationship was found between vitamin D and FBG (p<0.05). Supplementation of vitamin D improved FBG but did not contribute to improving insulin level. There was no association between vitamin D supplementation and WHR.

CONCLUSION: This study concludes that supplementation of vitamin D improves FBG, but it has no contribution in improving insulin level. No association exists between vitamin D supplementation and WHR. The insignificant correlation of vitamin D intake with WHR and insulin can be attributed to the small sample size, therefore, further research is suggested with large sample size.

KEYWORDS: vitamin D, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, waist hip ratio, hypovitaminosis D


Full Text:

PDF

References


Trivedi DP, Doll R, Khaw KT. Effect of four monthly oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ Br Med J. 2003; 326: 469-72, CrossRef.

Lips P, van Ginkel FC, Jongen MJ, Rubertus F, van der Vijgh WJ, Netelenbos JC. Determinants of vitamin D status in patients with hip fracture and in elderly control subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987; 46: 1005-10, CrossRef.

Eastell R, Barton I, Hannon RA, Chines A, Garnero P, Delmas PD. Relationship of early changes in bone resorption to the reduction in fracture risk with risedronate. J Bone Min Res. 2003; 18: 1051-6, CrossRef.

Korkor AB. Reduced binding of [3H]l,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the parathyroid glands of patients with renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 1573-7, CrossRef.

Chan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of vegetarians, partial vegetarians, and nonvegetarians: The Adventist Health Study-2. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89: 1686-92, CrossRef.

Aloia JF, Patel M, Dimaano R, Li-ng M, Talwar SA, Mikhail M, et al. Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 1952-8, CrossRef.

Heaney RP. Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 25: 1706-9, CrossRef.

Ardawi M-SM, Sibiany AM, Bakhsh TM, Qari MH, Maimani AA. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi Arabian men: relationship to bone mineral density, parathyroid hormone, bone turnover markers, and lifestyle factors. Osteoporos Int. 2012; 23: 675-86, CrossRef.

Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006; 81: 353-73, CrossRef.

Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 266-81, CrossRef.

Thomas MK, Lloyd-Jones DM, Thadhani RI, Shaw AC, Deraska DJ, Kitch BT, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients. N Engl J Med. 1998; 338: 777-83, CrossRef.

Alsuwaida AO, Farag YMK, Sayyari AA Al, Mousa D, Alhejaili F, Al-Harbi A, et al. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi Investigators) – A Pilot Study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010; 21: 1066-72, PMID.

Greer W, Ahmed M, Rifai A, Sandridge AL. Exploring the extent of postmenopausal osteoporosis among Saudi arabian women using dynamic simulation. J Clin Densitom. 2008; 11: 543-54, CrossRef.

Savastano S, Barrea L, Savanelli MC, Nappi F, Di Somma C, Orio F, et al. Low vitamin D status and obesity: Role of nutritionist. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017; 18: 215-25, CrossRef.

Moussavi M, Heidarpour R, Aminorroaya A, Pournaghshband Z, Amini M. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Isfahani high school students in 2004. Horm Res. 2005; 64: 144-8, CrossRef.

Hashemipour S, Larijani B, Adibi H, Javadi E, Sedaghat M, Pajouhi M, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health. 2004; 4: 1-6, CrossRef.

Wamberg L, Cullberg KB, Rejnmark L, Richelsen B, Pedersen SB. Investigations of the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D in adipose tissue: results from an in vitro study and a randomized controlled trial. Horm Metab Res. 2013; 45: 456-62, CrossRef.

Tzotzas T, Vlahavas G, Papadopoulou SK, Kapantais E, Kaklamanou D, Hassapidou M. Marital status and educational level associated to obesity in greek adults: data from the national epidemiological survey. Bio Med Cent Public Heal. 2010; 10: 732, CrossRef.

Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, Vafa M, Razaghi M, Dehghani S, et al. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D(3) supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012; 11: 78, CrossRef.

Iyengar S, Hamman RF, Marshall JA, Majumder PP, Ferrell RE, Rao DC, et al. On the role of vitamin D binding globulin in glucose homeostasis: results from the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Genet Epidemiol. 1989; 6: 691-8, CrossRef.

Kavaric S, Vuksanovic M, Bozovic D, Jovanovic M, Jeremic V, Radojicic Z, et al. Body weight and waist circumference as predictors of vitamin D deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2013; 70: 163-9, CrossRef.

Nagpal J, Pande JN, Bhartia A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med. 2009; 26: 19-27, CrossRef.

Al-Sultan AI, Amin TT, Abou-Seif MA, Al Naboli MR. Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and insulin sensitivity among obese young adult Saudis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011; 15: 135-47, PMID.

Chiu KC, Chu A, Go VLW, Saad MF. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and Beta cell dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 25: 820-5, CrossRef.

Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 669-83, PMID.

Kayaniyil S, Gerstein HC, Veith R, Perkins BA, Retnakaran R, Harris SB, et al. Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and betacell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 1379-81, CrossRef.

Brenner DR, Arora P, Garcia-Bailo B. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiometabolic disease among Canadian adults. J Diabetes Metab. 2011; s2: 167-72, CrossRef.

Cigolini M. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and prevalence of cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 722-4, PMID.

Wehr E, Pilz S, Schweighofer N, Giuliani A, Kopera D, Pieber TR, et al. Association of hypovitaminosis D with metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 161: 575-82, CrossRef.

Carrillo AE, Flynn MG, Pinkston C, Markofski MM, Jiang Y, Donkin SS, et al. Impact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adults. Clin Nutr. 2013; 32: 375-81, CrossRef.

Mahmoudi S, Brunet A. Aging and reprogramming: A two-way street. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2012; 24: 744-56, CrossRef.

Faraji R, Sharami SH, Zahiri Z, Asgharni M, Kazemnejad E, Sadeghi S. Evaluation of relation between anthropometric indices and vitamin D concentrations in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Fam Reprod Heal. 2014; 8: 123-9, PMID.

Semba RD, Garrett E, Johnson BA, Guralnik JM, Fried LP. Vitamin D deficiency among older women with and without disability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72: 1529-34, CrossRef.

Baradara A, Behradmanesh S, Nasri H. Association of body mass index and serum vitamin D level in healthy Iranian adolescents. Endokrynol Pol. 2012; 63: 29-33.

Need AG, Morris HA, Horowitz M, Nordin C. Effects of skin thickness, age, body fat, and sunlight on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 58: 882-5, CrossRef.

Seiler C, Stoller M, Pitt B, Meier P. The human coronary collateral circulation: Development and clinical importance. Eur Heart J. 2013; 34: 2674-82, CrossRef.

Mouquet F, Cuilleret F, Susen S, Sautire K, Marboeuf P, Ennezat PV et al. Metabolic syndrome and collateral vessel formation in patients with documented occluded coronary arteries: Association with hyperglycaemia, insulin-resistance, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 840-9, CrossRef.

Yetkin E, Topal E, Erguzel N, Senen K, Heper G, Waltenberger J. Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis. Angiogenesis. 2015; 18: 201-7, CrossRef.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18585/inabj.v11i1.489

Indexed by:

                 

                  

               

     

 

The Prodia Education and Research Institute