IR Bagendit Paddy Leaves Extract Improves Liver Cell Morphology and Reduces The Activity of Transaminase Enzymes After Lead Exposure in Rat

Budi Santosa, Henna Ria Sunoko, Andri Sukeksi, Siti Thomas Zulaikhah


BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) was known as one of systemic toxic agent. In the body, lead may be deactivated by the metallothioneins. Paddy leaves contain metallothioneins, sugars and pythosterols, and studies have shown the pharmacological activity of rice leaves on the protective effect of lead-induced rats against kidney function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IR Bagendit paddy leaves extract as hepatoprotective agent.

METHODS: Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups: one control and three treatment groups. Control and treatment groups were exposed to lead of 0.5 g/kg body weight (BW)/day and then the treatment groups were administered with paddy leaves extract of 0.2; 0.4; and 0.8 g/kg BW/day per oral for 8 weeks. On the last day of the 8th week, body weight was measured and the numbers of normal, degenerative and necrotic liver cells were examined with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were measured as liver function parameter. Difference of variables between control and treatment groups were examined by Friedman test.

RESULTS: There was no association in different BW between groups. The normal liver cells are higher in treatment than control group (p<0.001) and necrotic liver cells are lower in treatment than control group (p≤0.001). There was no association in degenerative liver cells between groups (p=0.153). The activity of transaminase enzymes are lower in treatment than control group (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: IR Bagendit Paddy leaves extract reveals hepatoprotective activity by improving liver cells morphology and reducing the activity of transaminase enzymes after lead exposure.

KEYWORDS: paddy leaves extract, liver normal cell, necrotic cell, transaminase enzymes

Full Text:



Mohammadi S, Mehrparvar A, Aghilinejad M. Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: a case-report. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2008; 3: 23, CrossRef.

Guengerich PF. Mechanisms of drug toxicity and relevance to pharmaceutical development. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011; 26: 3-14, CrossRef.

Santosa MH. Uji toksisitas akut dan subakut ekstrak etanol dan ekstrak air kulit batang Artocarpus champeden Spreng. dengan parameter histopatologi hati mencit. Maj Far Airlangga. 2005; 5: 91-5.

Rosmaidar, Nazaruddin, Winaruddin, Balqis U, Armansyah T. The effect of lead (Pb) exposure to the histopathology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilloticus) liver. JIMVET. 2017; 1: 742-8, CrossRef.

Hernández NMP, Marroquín HLA, Mayagoitia BS, Arenas GG, Hernández MR, Guzmán EMA, et al. Lead-, cadmium-, and arsenic-induced DNA damage in rat germinal cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2009; 28: 241-8, CrossRef.

Sharma S, Raghuvanshi BP, Shukla S. Toxic effects of lead exposure in rats: involvement of oxidative stress, genotoxic effect, and the beneficial role of N-acetylcysteine supplemented with selenium. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2014; 33: 19-32, CrossRef.

Gajawat S, Sancheti G, Goyal PK. Protection against lead induced hepatic lesion in Swisss Albino mice by ascorbic acid. Pharmacologyonline. 2006; 1: 140-9, article.

Santosa B, Sunoko HR. Analysis, identification, and formulation of metallothionein extracts on numerous varieties of Paddy Leaves. Semnas Unimus. 2017; 4: 95-9, article.

Iswanto EH, Praptana RH, Guswara A. Peran senyawa metabolit sekunder tanaman padi terhadap ketahanan wereng cokelat (Nilaparvata lugens). Iptek Tanam Pangan. 2016; 11: 127-32, article.

Santosa B, Sunoko HR, Sukeksi A. Rice leaf extract for kidney damage prevention in plumbum-exposed rats. Int Sem Educ Technol. 2016; 1: 213-7, article.

Santosa B, Sunoko HR, Sukeksi A. Ekstrak air daun padi memperbaiki hematopoesis pada tikus yang terpajan plumbum. Bandung Med J. 2015; 47: 84-90, CrossRef.

Davis SR, Cousin, JR. Metallothionein expression in animal: a physiological perspective on function. J Nutr. 2000; 130: 1085-8, CrossRef.

Murray RK. Porphyrin and Bile Pigments. In: Murray RK, Granner DK, Rodwell VW. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 27th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. p.279-93, NLMID.

Wong DL, Merrifield-MacRae ME, Stillman MJ. Lead(II) binding in metallothioneins. Met Ions Life Sci. 2017; 17: 9783110434330-009, CrossRef.

Dai S, Yin Z, Yuan G, Lu H, Jia R, Xu J, et al. Quantification of metallothionein on the liver and kidney of rats by subchronic lead and cadmium in combination. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013; 36: 1207-16, CrossRef.

Gonick HC. Lead-binding proteins: a review. J Toxicol. 2011; 2011: 686050, CrossRef.

Nabil MI, Esam AE, Hossam SE, Yasmin EAM. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012; 2012: 41-6, CrossRef.

Hariono B. Efek pemberian plumbum (timah hitam) pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus). J Sain Vet. 2006; 24: 125-33, CrossRef.

Fidiyatun, Setiani O, Suhartono. The association between blood lead level and liver disfunction on exposed lead workers in Tegal District. J Kes Ling Indones. 2013; 12: 149-53.

Pagliara P, Carla EC, Caforio S, Chionna A, Massa S, Abbro L, Kuffer cells promote lead nitrate induced hepatocyte apptosis via oxidative stress. Comp Hepatol. 2003; 2: 1-13, CrossRef.

Kozłowska M, Gruczyńska E, Ścibisz I, Rudzińska M. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds. Food Chem. 2016; 213: 450-6, CrossRef.

Huang SS, Deng JS, Chen HJ, Lin YH, Huang GJ. Antioxidant activities of two metallothionein-like proteins from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam. `Tainong 57’) storage roots and their synthesized peptides. Bot Stud. 2014; 55: 64, CrossRef.

Kepinska M, Kizek R, Milnerowicz H. Metallothionein and superoxide dismutase—antioxidative protein status in fullerenedoxorubicin delivery to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19: 3253, CrossRef.

Xiao X, Zhang C, Liu D, Bai W, Zhang Q, Xiang Q, et al. Prevention of gastrointestinal lead poisoning using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing human metallothionein-I fusion protein. Sci Report. 2016; 6: 23716, CrossRef.

Kim YJ. Interpretation of liver function tests. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2008; 51: 219-24, PMID.

Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Nejdl L, Gumulec J, Zitka O, Masarik M, Eckschlager T, et al. The role of metallothionein in oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14: 6044-66, CrossRef.

Richard N, Michel MD, Ramzi S, Cotran. Robins Pathologic Basic of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004.


Indexed by:






The Prodia Education and Research Institute